149,967 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,386 images, 57,648 bibliographic items, 380,221 distributional records.

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Gigartinaceae
Genus Chondrus

Pictures

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Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
iridescent algae (Dictyota dichotoma) with Zostera, prés du rocher du Loup, Roscoff, France. 05 Jun 2016. S. Loiseaux-de Goër. © S. Loiseaux-de Goër.

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
Chondrus crispus, lower intertidal, North of Portugal, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
Chondrus crispus, cystocarps; lower intertidal, North of Portugal, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
Chondrus crispus, lower intertidal, North of Portugal, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
Chondrus crispus, tetrasporangia; lower intertidal, North of Portugal, 2013, Ignacio Bárbara. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
lower intertidal, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
lower intertidal, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
lower intertidal, Ría de A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
Silver Strand, Galway Bay, Ireland; plants with young an old cystocarps. 06 Apr 2012. M.D.Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Chondrus crispus Stackhouse
Silver Strand, Galway Bay, Ireland; cystocarpic plant. 06 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Chondrus crispus Stackhouse Dog's Bay, Roundstone, Co. Galway, Ireland; plants at low water

Publication details
Chondrus crispus Stackhouse 1797: xxiv

Published in: Stackhouse, J. (1797). Nereis britannica; continens species omnes fucorum in insulis britannicis crescentium: descriptione latine et anglico, necnon iconibus ad vivum depictis... Fasc. 2. pp. ix-xxiv, 31-70, pls IX-XIII. Bathoniae [Bath] & Londini [London]: S. Hazard; J. White.
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Original description:  Download PDF

Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Chondrus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), crisped, irregularly waved and twisted (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Polymorpha crispa (Stackhouse) Stackhouse 1809

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus ceranoides var. lacerus (Linnaeus) Lightfoot
Fucus lacerus Linnaeus 1763
Fucus crispus Linnaeus 1767
Fucus norvegicus Gunnerus 1772
Fucus crispus var. aequalis Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus patens Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus crispus var. brunneus Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus crispus var. virens Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus lacerus Stackhouse 1797
Fucus crispus var. filiformis Goodenough & Woodward 1797
Fucus crispus var. sarniensis Turner 1802
Fucus crispus var. planus Turner 1802
Fucus crispus var. lacerus Turner 1802
Fucus crispus var. patens (Goodenough & Woodward) Turner 1802
Polymorpha norvegicus (Gunnerus) Stackhouse 1809
Polymorpha aequalis (Goodenough & Woodward) Stackhouse 1809
Sphaerococcus crispus f. aequalis (Turner) C.Agardh 1817
Sphaerococcus norvegicus (Gunnerus) C.Agardh 1817
Chondrus crispus var. aequalis (Goodenough & Woodward) Lyngbye 1819
Chondrus norvegicus (Gunnerus) Lyngbye 1819
Chondrus crispus var. incurvatus Lyngbye 1819
Chondrus crispus var. virens (Goodenough & Woodward) Duby 1830
Chondrus crispus var. patens Duby 1830
Chondrus crispus var. lacerus (Stackhouse) Duby 1830
Chondrus crispus var. sarniensis (Turner) Duby 1830
Chondrus crispus var. planus (Turner) Duby 1830
Sphaerococcus crispus var. ciliatus Suhr 1834
Iridaea heterocarpa Postels & Ruprecht 1840
Oncotylus norvegicus (Gunnerus) Kützing 1843
Chondrus variolosus Ruprecht 1850
Chondrus platysma Ruprecht 1850
Gymnogongrus norvegicus (Gunnerus) J.Agardh 1851
Chondrus crispus f. typicus Reinke 1889
Chondrus crispus f. abbreviatus Kjellman 1907
Chondrus crispus f. polychotomus Kjellman ex Kylin 1907
Chondrus crispus f. aequalis (Goodenough & Woodward) Rosenvinge 1931
Chondrus crispus f. incurvatus (Lyngbye) Rosenvinge 1931
Chondrus crispus f. densus Rosenvinge 1931
Iridophycus heterocarpus (Postels & Ruprecht) Setchell & N.L.Gardner 1937
Gigartina heterocarpa (Postels & Ruprecht) D.H.Kim 1976

Nomenclatural notes
Replacement name for Fucus crispus Linnaeus, 1767, nom. illeg., priority for Fucus crispus Hudson, 1762 (Art. 58.1). - (18 Nov 2015) - M.D. Guiry

Taxonomic notes
John et al. (2004) treat Chondrus crispus var. lonchophorus as a synonym of Chondrus crispus var. crispus but this rquires further study.

Distributional notes
The occurrence of this species in the Canary islands is doubtful; see comments in Price et al. (1986). Skottsberg (1953: 545, footnote) was of the opinion, certainly correct, that a record from the Antarctic Peninsula is not this species (see Papenfuss, 1964: 40). John et al. (2004) note that all records are considered doubtful by Price et al. (1986) and Haroun et al. (2002).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Chondrus crispus Stackhouse)
Breton: Bejin Gwenn, Pioca (Madlener 1977).

Dutch: Iers mos (European Communities 1998).

English: Irish Moss, Carragheen, Carragheen Moss, Dorset weed, Pearl Moss, Sea Moss, Sea Pearl Moss, Jelly Moss, Rock Moss, Gristle Moss, Curly Moss, Curly Gristle Moss (Madlener 1977), Carrageen (Anonymous 1978), Carraghean, Carrageenin (Rhoads & Zunic 1978).

Finnish: Punalevä-laji (European Communities 1998).

French: Goemon blanc, Mousse d'Irlande (Madlener 1977), Mousse d’Irlande (Anon. 2000).

Gaeilge: Cruibín chait (Brennan 1950), Carraigín, Cosáinín carraige (Anonymous 1978).

German: Irischmoos, Irisches moos (European Communities 1998).

Italian: Muschio Irlandese (European Communities 1998).

Portuguese: Musgo-gordo, Botelho (Sanches, 1989), Botelha, Cuspelho, Musgo, Limo-folha (Oliveira, 1990), Musgo gordo, Folha-de-alface (European Communities 1998).

Spanish: Condrus (European Communities 1998).

Swedish: Karragener (European Communities 1998).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
Irish moss {Eng}; pearl moss {Eng}; carrageen moss {Eng}; carrageen {Eng}; mousse perlTe {Fr}; jelly moss {Eng}; "moss, Irish"; "moss, pearl"; "moss, carrageen"; "moss, jelly"

Description
Cartilaginous, dark purplish-red, red, yellowish or greenish fronds to 150 mm high, gametophyte plants are often iridescent under water when in good condition. Stipe compressed, narrow, expanding gradually to a flat, repeatedly dichotomously branched frond, in tufts from a discoid holdfast. Axils rounded, apices blunt or subacute, frond thicker in centre than margins. Very variable in breadth of segments. Very variable in branching, colour and thickness.

Habitat
On rocks, lower intertidal and shallow subtidal, in pools in the mid-intertidal in some locations; widely distributed in the north western and north eastern Atlantic, often abundant and zone-forming at low water.

Key characteristics
Regular dichotomous branching; cartilaginous feel to the fronds; absence of papillate cystocarps and channeling.

Similar species
Mastocarpus stellatus is frequently collected with Chondrus crispus and sold as a mixture under the name Carrageen or Irish Moss.

Type information
Type locality: N. Atlantic Ocean (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 898). Holotype: LINN 1274.68 (Dixon & Irvine 1977: 234).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus crispus Linnaeus)
Europe: Ireland (Tighe 1803), Spain (Roxas Clemente y Rubio 1807).

Africa: Ghana (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

(as Fucus norvegicus Gunnerus)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus Stackhouse)
Arctic: White Sea (Mikhaylova 2017).

Europe: Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Belgium (Coppejans & Kling 1995), Britain (Newton 1931, Dixon & Irvine 1977, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Holmes and Brodie 2005, Kientz et al. 2011, Marconi et al. 2011, Brodie et al. 2016, Bunker et al. 2017), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961, Dixon 1961, Trowbridge, Farnham & White 2004), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Coppejans & Kling 1995, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Krueger-Hadfield et al. 2011, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954, Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Hünken et al 2005, Kräbs & Wiencke), Greece (Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Adams 1907, Cotton 1912, Cotton 1913, Cullinane 1969, Cullinane 1971, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Maggs 1983, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012, Bunker et al. 2017), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001, Husa, Steem & Sjøtun 2014), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Pereira & Mesquita 2003, Araujo et al. 2005, Araújo et al. 2006, Araújo et al. 2009), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Miranda 1931, Pérez-Cirera & Maldonado 1982, Gallardo & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Fernández & Niell 1982, Fernández, Niell & Anadón 1983, Anadón 1983, Anadón & Fernández 1986, Silva & Fernández 1988, Pérez-Cirera 1989, Fernández, Gutiérrez & Rico 1990, Fernández & Menéndez 1991, Perez-Cirera, Cremades, Bárbara & Lopez 1991, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Veiga Villar 1999, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Sánchez, Fernández & Rico 2003, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Sánchez et al 2005, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Esteban et al. 2009, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1944).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994 ), Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986 , John et al. 2004 ), Cape Verde Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986 , John et al. 2004 ), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977), Connecticut (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979, Kraemer et al. 2017), Maine (Mathieson et al. 2001), New Brunswick (Bates et al. 2005), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986, Mathieson & Dawes 2002), Nova Scotia (Schmidt & Scheibling 2006, Schneider et al. 2011, Scrosati 2016).

South America: Falkland Islands/Islas Malvinas (Papenfuss 1964 ).

Africa: Angola (John et al. 2004 ), Ghana (Price, John & Lawson 1986 , John et al. 2004 , Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Mauritania (Price, John & Lawson 1986 , John et al. 2004 ).

Asia: Bering Sea (Lindstrom 1977), Japan (Holmes 1896, Mikami 1965), Kamchatka (Vozzhinskaja 1965), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Lee et al. 2011, Park et al. 2014), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012).

Antarctic and the subantarctic islands: Antarctic Peninsula (Papenfuss 1964 ).

(as Fucus crispus var. aequalis Goodenough & Woodward)
Europe: Ireland (Tighe 1803 ).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Fucus crispus var. brunneus Goodenough & Woodward)
Europe: Ireland (Tighe 1803).

(as Fucus crispus var. virens Goodenough & Woodward)
Europe: Ireland (Tighe 1803).

(as Fucus crispus var. sarniensis Turner)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

(as Fucus crispus var. planus Turner)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

(as Polymorpha crispa (Stackhouse) Stackhouse)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphaerococcus crispus f. aequalis (Turner) C.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus var. aequalis (Goodenough & Woodward) Lyngbye)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Sweden (Kylin 1944).

(as Chondrus norvegicus (Gunnerus) Lyngbye)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus var. virens (Goodenough & Woodward) Duby)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

(as Chondrus crispus var. patens Duby)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus var. lacerus (Stackhouse) Duby)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus var. sarniensis (Turner) Duby)
Europe: Channel Islands (Lyle 1920).

(as Chondrus crispus var. planus (Turner) Duby)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphaerococcus crispus var. ciliatus Suhr)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Iridaea heterocarpa Postels & Ruprecht)
North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977 , Scagel et al. 1989 ), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989 ), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976 , Silva 1979 , Scagel et al. 1989 ), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Washington (Scagel et al. 1989 ).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus variolosus Ruprecht)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Auckland Islands (Lindstrom et al. 2015 ).

(as Gymnogongrus norvegicus (Gunnerus) J.Agardh)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974), Ireland (Adams 1907, Cotton 1912, Cullinane 1971), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Lázaro Ibiza 1889, Sauvageau 1897, Bellón 1921, Hamel 1928, Miranda 1931, Bellón 1940, Bellón 1942, Seoane-Camba 1957, Ardré 1957, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965, Gómez-Menor Robles & Fuertes Lasala 1982, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988).

Africa: Morocco (Dangeard 1949).

(as Chondrus crispus f. typicus Reinke)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1944).

(as Chondrus crispus f. abbreviatus Kjellman)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1944).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus f. polychotomus Kjellman ex Kylin)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1944).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus f. aequalis (Goodenough & Woodward) Rosenvinge)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus f. incurvatus (Lyngbye) Rosenvinge)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Chondrus crispus f. densus Rosenvinge)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1944).

(as Iridophycus heterocarpus (Postels & Ruprecht) Setchell & N.L.Gardner)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dixon, P.S. & Irvine, L.M. (1977). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 1. Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. pp. [i]v-xi, [1]4-252, 90 figs. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Hommersand, M.H., Guiry, M.D., Fredericq, S. & Leister, G.L. (1993). New perspectives in the taxonomy of the Gigartinaceae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 105-120, 41 figs.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Mikami, H. (1965). A systematic study of the Phyllophoraceae and Gigartinaceae from Japan and its vicinity. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University 5(2): 181-285.

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Zinova, A.D. (1955). Opredelitel burykh vodoroslej severnykh morej SSSR [Determination book of the red algae of the northern seas of the USSR]. pp. 1-219 [+ 1], 169 figs. Moscow & Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Created: 30 July 1999 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 02 August 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 82387 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)







Amat, M. A. & Braud, J.-P. (1990). Ammonium uptake by Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) in culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 467-471.
Amat, M. A. & Braud, J.-P. (1993). The use of acetic acid as a source of carbon by cultured Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) Stackhouse. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 451-456.
Anadón, R. & Fernández, C. (1988). Cartografía de la biomasa de campos intermareales de Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Florideophyceae) en la costa de Asturias (N. de España). Investigacion Pesquera 52: 265-276.
Bates, S.S. & Craigie, J.S. (1988). Fluorescence induction in the macroalgae Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and Ulva sp. (Chlorophyceae). Marine Biology, Berlin 98: 457-466.
Bidwell, R.G.S., Lloyd, N.D.H. & McLachlan, J. (1984). The performance of Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) in laboratory simulations of environments in different locations. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 292-294.
Bidwell, R.G.S., McLachlan, J. & Lloyd, N.D.H. (1985). Tank cultivation of Irish moss, Chondrus crispus Stackh. Botanica Marina 28: 87-97.
Bird, N.L., Chen, L.C.-M. & McLachlan, J. (1979). Effects of temperature, light and salinity on growth in culture of Chondrus crispus, Furcellaria lumbricalis, Gracilaria tikvahiae (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) and Fucus serratus (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina 22: 521-527.
Bown, P., Plumb, J., Sánchez-Baracaldo, P., Hayes, P.K. & Brodie, J. (2003). Sequence heterogeneity of green (Chlorophyta) endophytic algae associated with a population of Chondrus crispus (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 38(2): 153-164.
Braud, J. P. & Delépine, R. (1981). Growth response of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) to light and temperature in laboratory and outdoor tanks culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 553-558.
Braud, J. P. (1984). Carbonic system-incident energy relationship in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) tank culture. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 463-466.
Braud, J.-P. & Amat, M. A. (1996). Chondrus crispus (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) tank cultivation: optimizing carbon input by a fixed pH and use of a salt well. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 335-340.
Brewer, D., McLachlan, J., Neish, A.C., Taylor, A. & MacIntyre, T.M. (1979). Effects of feeding of Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) during the grazing season on the condition and fertility of Shropshire ewes. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 59: 95-100.
Brinkhuis, H. (1974). Photosynthesis in whole plants of Chondrus crispus. Marine Biology 27: 137-141.
Buggeln, R.G. & Craigie, J.S. (1973). The physiology and biochemistry of Chondrus crispus Stackhouse. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science 27 (supplement): 81-102.
Burns, R.L. & Mathieson, A.C. (1972). Ecological studies of economic red algae. II. Culture studies of Chondrus crispus Stackhouse and Gigartina stellata (Stackhouse) Batters. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 8: 1-6.
Carrington, E., Grace, S.P. & Chopin, T. (2001). Life history phases and biomechanical properties of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 37: 699-704.
Chen, L.C.-M. & McLachlan, J. (1972). The life history of Chondrus crispus in culture. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 1055-1060.
Chen, L.C.-M. & Taylor, A.R.A. (1976). Scanning electron microscopy of early sporeling ontogeny of Chondrus crispus. Canadian Journal of Botany 54: 672-678.
Chen, L.C.-M. & Taylor, A.R.A. (1978). Medullary tissue culture of the red alga Chondrus crispus. Can J Bot 56: 883-886.
Chen, L.C.-M. & Taylor, A.R.A. (1980). Investigations of distinct strains of Chondrus crispus Stackh. I. Field and laboratory observations. Botanica Marina 23: 435-440.
Chen, L.C.-M. & Taylor, A.R.A. (1980). Investigations of distinct strains of Chondrus crispus Stackh. II. Culture studies. Botanica Marina 23: 441-448.
Chen, L.C.-M., McLachlan, J., Neish, A.C. & Shacklock, P.F. (1973). The ratio of kappa- to lambda- carrageenan in the nuclear phases of the Rhodophycean algae, Chondrus crispus and Gigartina stellata. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 53: 11-16.
Cheney, D., Mathieson, A. & Schubert, D. (1981). The application of genetic improvement techniques to seaweed cultivation: I. Strain selection in the Carrageenophyte Chondrus crispus. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 559-567.
Cheney, D., Mathieson, M. & Schubert, D. (1981). The application of genetic improvement techniques to seaweed cultivation: I. Strain selection in the carrageenophyte Chondrus crispus. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 569-567.
Cheney, D.P. & Mathieson, A.C. (1979). Population differentiation in the seaweed Chondrus crispus: preliminary results. Isozyme Bull. 12: 57.
Chopin, T. & Floc'H, J. (1992). Eco - Physiological and biochemical study of two of the must constranting forms of Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Marine Ecology Progress Series 81: 185-195.
Chopin, T. & Floc'h, J.-Y. (1987). Seasonal variations of growth in the red alga Chondrus crispus on the Atlantic French coasts. I. A new approach by fluorescence labelling. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 1014-1018.
Chopin, T. & Wagey, B.T. (1999). Factorial study of the effects of phosphorus and nitrogen enrichments on nutrient and Carrageenan content in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyceae) and on residual nutrient concentration in seawater. Botanica Marina 42: 23-31, 8 figs, 2 tables.
Chopin, T. (1986). The red alga Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Irish moss) and carrageenans - a review. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1514: v + 69.
Chopin, T., Bird, C.J., Murphy, C.A., Osborne, J.A., Patwary, M.U. & Floc'h, J.-Y. (1996). A molecular investigation of polymorphism in the North Atlantic red alga Chondrus crispus (Gigartinales). Phycological Research 44: 69-80, 3 figs, 6 tables.
Chopin, T., Bodeau-Bellion, C., Floc'h, J.-Y., Guittet, E. & Lallemand, J.-Y. (1987). Seasonal study of carrageenan structures from female gametophytes of Chondrus crispus Stackhouse (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 535-539.
Chopin, T., Floc'h, J.Y., Bodeau-Bellion, C. & Penot, M. (1985). Nutrition phosphorée chez Chondrus crispus Stackh. (Rhodophycées). IFREMER, Actes Coll. 1: 19-32.
Chopin, T., Gallant, T. & Davison, I. (1995). Phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition in Chondrus crispus (Rhodophyta): effects on total phosphorus and nitrogen content, carrageenan production, and photosynthetic pigments and metabolism. Journal of Phycology 31: 283-293, 9 figs, 3 tables.
Chopin, T., Hourmant, A., Floc'h, J.-Y. & Penot, M. (1990). Seasonal variations of growth in the red alga Chondrus crispus on the Atlantic French coasts. II - relations with phosphorus concentration in seawater and internal phosphorylated fractions. Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 512-517.
Chopin, T., Pringle, J.D. & Semple, R.E. (1988). Reproductive capacity of dragraked and non-dragraked Irish moss (Chondrus crispus Stackhouse) beds in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45: 758-766.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 November 2017.

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