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Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Bonnemaisoniales
Family Bonnemaisoniaceae
Genus Asparagopsis

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
La Rhianna, Andalucia, Spain. 23 Jul 2013. Francis Bunker. © Francis Bunker (fbunker@marineseen.com).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
South Africa. 09 Dec 2011. Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za). © Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Knysna Estuary, Western Cape, South Africa, April 2008. 09 Dec 2011. Robert Anderson. © Robert Anderson (anderson@botzoo.uct.ac.za).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Hawaii; Falkenbergia-phase filaments; scale 100 µm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman. From: Huisman JM, Abbott IA, Smith CM (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 264 p. Available from Seagrant, University of Hawai'i.

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Hawaii; scale is 5 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman. From: Huisman JM, Abbott IA, Smith CM (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. 264 p. Available from Seagrant, University of Hawai'i.

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Bonaire, Caribbean. 26 Mar 2011. Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger. © Mat Vestjens & Anne Frijsinger (annenmat@natuurlijkmooi.net).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Lord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Asparagopsis taxiformis , Lord Howe Island, Australia" . M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
ALord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan
Lord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Iridaea insignis Endlicher & Diesing

Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan Tanzania; Falkenbergia-phase plants under microscope

Publication details
Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan 1845: 45

Published in: Trevisan, V.B.A. (1845). Nomenclator algarum, ou collection des noms imposées aux plantes de la famille des algues. pp. 1-80. Padoue [Padua]: Imprimerie du Seminaire.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Asparagopsis is Asparagopsis delilei Montagne.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus taxiformis Delile

Type information
Type locality: Alexandria, Egypt (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 182). Type: herb. Lenormand, C (Yoshida 1998: 648).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), resembling the genus Taxus.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus taxiformis Delile 1813
Lictoria taxiformis (Delile) J.Agardh 1841

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Asparagopsis delilei Montagne 1841
Dasya delilei Montagne 1841
Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harvey 1855
Polysiphonia hillebrandii Bornet 1883
Falkenbergia hillebrandii (Bornet) Falkenberg 1901

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan)
English: Supreme Limu (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Hawaiian: Limu kohu, Limu lipaakai, Kohu lipeche, Kohu koko (Madlener 1977), Kohu lipehe (Abbott 1984).

Japanese: Kagikenori (Madlener 1977).

(as Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harvey)
Hawaiian: Limu kohu, Limu koko, Limu nipaakai (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
limu kohu; bulaklak {Tagal}

Habitat
A tropical/subtropical species; thalli are epilithic (Womersley 1996: 331).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus taxiformis Delile)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Asparagopsis delilei Montagne)
Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

Africa: Pagalu (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Dasya delilei Montagne)
Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Gil-Rodriguez 1982, Price, John & Lawson 1986).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Lictoria taxiformis (Delile) J.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan)
Europe: Apulia (Bottalico et al. 2016), Balearic Islands (Ballesteros & Rodríguez-Prieto 1996), France (Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2012), Italy (Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004), Spain (Báez, Conde & Flores-Moya 2001), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 2005), Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodriguez 1982, Ballesteros, Sansón, Reyes, Afonso-Carrillo & Gil-Rodríguez 1992, Haroun et al. 2002, Herrera-López et al 2003, Moreira-Reyes et al 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Hernández-González et al. 2004a, Hernández-González et al. 2004b, Domínguez-Alvarez et al. 2005, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (Otero-Schmitt & Sanjuan 1992, John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, Haroun et al. 2002, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Price, John & Lawson 1986, Price, John & Lawson 1986, Parente et al. 2000, John et al. 2004).

North America: California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Stewart 1991, Miller 2012), Florida (Schneider & Searles 1991, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Mexico (Dawson 1953, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Castaneda-Fernández de Lara et al. 2010 ), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991).

Central America: Belize (Norris & Bucher 1982), Costa Rica (Fernández-García et al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Panama (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Suárez 2005, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Hispaniola (Betancourt & Herrera-Moreno, 2001), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999, Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Puerto Rico (Ní Chualáin et al. 2004), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Falcão & Menezes de Széchy 2005, Villaca et al. 2010 , Creed et al. 2010), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Colombia (Díaz-Pulido & Díaz-Ruíz 2003), Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993), Equatorial Guinea (John et al. 2004), Ghana (Price, John & Lawson 1986, Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Guinea (John et al. 2004), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (Price, John & Lawson 1986, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritania (John et al. 2004), Mauritius (Børgesen 1942, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mediterranean Sea (Altamirano et al. 2010), Nigeria (Price, John & Lawson 1986, Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Senegal (John et al. 2004), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, De Clerck, Tronchin & Schils 2005 ), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005).

Indian Ocean Islands: Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Andreakis et al. 2016), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed et al. 2009), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Iran (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Israel (Hoffman 2004, Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008, Hoffman et al. 2014 ), Jordan (Papenfuss 1968), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013, Bitar et al. 2017 ), Oman (Wynne & Jupp 1998), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Coppejans et al. 2009), Yemen (Papenfuss 1968).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2016), Japan (Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), South Korea (Andreakis et al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Kraft et al. 1999, Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Pham et al. 2011), Thailand (Coppejans et al. 2011), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Abbott, Fisher & McDermid 2002, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Tsutsui et al. 2005, Titlyanov et al. 2011, Titlyanov & Titlyanov 2012, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Great Barrier Reef (Andreakis et al. 2016), Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), Kermadec Islands (Andreakis et al. 2016), Lord Howe Island (Millar & Kraft 1993, Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000, Andreakis et al. 2016), New South Wales (Andreakis et al. 2016 ), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Nelson 2012), Norfolk Island (Millar 1999 , Andreakis et al. 2016), Northern Territory (Womersley 1958, Lewis 1984, Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans & Millar 2000), Queensland (Lewis 1984, Cribb 1996, Womersley 1996, Phillips 1997, Huisman 2000, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000), Western Australia (Huisman & Walker 1990, Womersley 1996, Huisman 2000, Huisman & Borowitzka 2003, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, Huisman et al. 2009).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003, Littler & Littler 2003), French Polynesia (Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000, N'Yeurt & Payri 2010, Andreakis et al. 2016), Guam (Lehmann 1846), Hawaiian Islands (Magruder & Hunt 1979, Abbott 1999, Ní Chualáin et al. 2004, McDermid et al. 2005, Beach et al. 2006, Skelton & South 2007, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007, Sherwood 2008, Vroom & Timmers 2009), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957, Skelton & South 2007), New Caledonia (Andreakis et al. 2016), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014), Samoa (Skelton & South 2007), Wake Atoll (Ysuda et al. 2010).

(as Asparagopsis sanfordiana Harvey)
North America: Gulf of California (Dawson 1944).

Central America: Islas Revillagigedo (Setchell & Gardner 1930, Taylor 1945).

South America: Ecuador (Taylor 1945).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Shao 2003-2014).

(as Polysiphonia hillebrandii Bornet)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Falkenbergia hillebrandii (Bornet) Falkenberg)
Europe: Spain (Miranda 1934, Miranda 1936), Turkey (Europe) (Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960), Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Cape Verde Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Price, John & Lawson 1986, Parente et al. 2000).

North America: Florida (Taylor 1960), Isla Guadalupe (Setchell & Gardner 1930), Mexico (Dawson 1953, Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960), Cayman Islands (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Brazil (Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977).

Africa: Ghana (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Liberia (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Nigeria (Price, John & Lawson 1986), Senegal (Price, John & Lawson 1986).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Aziz & Rahman 2010), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013).

Asia: China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015), Japan (Titlyanov et al 2006), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Abbott, Fisher & McDermid 2002, Nguyen et al. 2013).

Pacific Islands: Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957).

Distributional notes
According to Womersley (1996) this species is distributed in tropical/ subtropical oceans generally and lists the following Australian locations: Northern Australia to Rottnest I., W. Aust., and southern Qld; Lord Howe I.; The Gulf region of S. Aust. This species has been introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 111) being first found at Alexandria, Egypt around 1798-1801. It is likely that there were two separate introductions: one by shipping and the other via the Suez Canal. The species in now widely distributed in the Mediterranean.

Usage notes
Used fresh in Hawaii as “limu” (generic name for seaweed) to flavour meat and fish dishes.

Key references
Andreakis, N., Costello, P., Zanolla, M., Saunders, G.W. & Mata, L. (2016). Endemic or introduced? Phylogeography of Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae) in Australia reveals multiple introductions and a new mitochondrial lineage (Note). Journal of Phycology 52(1): 141-147.

Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Dijoux, L., Viard, F., & Payri, C. (2014). The more we search, the more we find: discovery of a new lineage and a new species complex in the genus Asparagopsis. PLoS ONE 9(7): 1-13.

Hayee-Memon, A. & Shameel, M. (1996). A taxonomic study of some red algae commonly growing on the coast of Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 5(2): 113-137.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

N'Yeurt, A.D.R. & Payri, C.E. (2010). Marine algal flora of French Polynesia III. Rhodophyta, with additions to the Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyta. Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 3-205.

Ní Chualáin, F., Maggs, C.A., Saunders, G.W. & Guiry, M.D. (2004). The invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta): molecular systematics, morphology, and ecophysiology of Falkenbergia isolates. Journal of Phycology 40: 1112-1126.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2007). The benthic marine algae of the Samoan Archipelago, South Pacific, with emphasis on the Apia District. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 132: 1-350.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2014). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka.

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanov, T.V. (2012). Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation. pp. [1]-376, many col. photographs. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photograph and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1996). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIB - Gracilariales, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales. Vol. 5 pp. 1-392, 160 figs. Canberra & Adelaide: Australian Biological Resources Study & the State Herbarium of South Australia.

Zanolla, M., Carmona, R., De La Rosa, J., Salvador, N., Sherwood, A.R., Andreakis, N. & Altamirano, M. (2014). Morphological differentiation of cryptic lineages within the invasive genus Asparagopsis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 53(3): 233-242.

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Zeng, C. (Tseng, C.K.), Luan, R., Chen, Z. & Li, W. (2005). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus II Rhodophyta No. II Acrochaetiales Nemaliales Bonnemaisoniales. pp. [i-vii], i-xxiii, 1-180 , pls I-VIII. Beijing: Science Press.

Created: 29 July 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 28 March 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 23705 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Altamirano, M., Muñoz, A.R., de la Rosa, J. Barrajon-Minguez, A., Barrajon-Domenech, A., Moreno-Robledo, C., Arroyo, M.C. (2008). The invasive species Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) on Andalusian coasts (southern Spain): reproductive stages, new records and invaded communities. Acta Botanica Malacitana 33: 5-15.
Andreakis, N., Procaccini, G. & Kooistra, W.H.C.F. (2004). Asparagopis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): genetic and morphological identification of Mediterranean populations. European Journal of Phycology 39: 273-284.
Ballesteros, E. & Rodríguez-Prieto, C. (1996). Presencia d'Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan a Balears (Presence of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan in the Balearic Islands). Boll. Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears 39: 135-138.
Barone, R. (2004). Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan (Rhodophyta) E Trichodesmium erythraeum Ehrenberg (Cyanobacteria), due taxa algali tropicali identificati nelle acque costiere della Sicilia. Naturalista sicil., S. 4(28): 183-203.
Barone, R., Mannino, A.M. & Marino, M. (2004). Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta): first record of gametophytes on the Italian coast. Bocconea 16: 1021-1025.
Bhanderi, P.P. (1975). An estimate of the iodine yielding seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Collins and Hervey ('Hervey') from some subtidal reefs of Saurashtra coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 16: 288-289, 1 table.
Rojas, J.J., Lemus, A. & Ganesan, E.K. (1982). El ciclo vital "in vitro" del alga marina roja Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Collins & Hervey (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) del Mar Caribe. Bol. Inst. Oceanogr. (Cumaná) 21: 101-112.
Sherwood, A.R. (2008). Phylogeography of Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisonales, Rhodophyta) in the Hawaiian Islands: two mtDNA markers support three separate introductions. Phycologia 47: 79-88.
Woolard, F.X., Moore, R.E. & Roller, P.P. (1979). Halogenated acetic and acrylic acids from the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis. Phytochemistry 18: 617-620.
Zanolla Balbuena, M. (2014). Análisis del proceso invasor de Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan de Saint-Leon (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta). Doctoral Thesis. : Universidad de Málaga.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 June 2017.

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