136,223 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 17,639 images, 51,185 bibliographic items, 254,266 distributional records.

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Laminariales
Family Laminariaceae
Genus Laminaria

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; a tangle!. 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; plants at low water. 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
France, Brittany, 2011. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
France, Brittany, 2011. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 03 Apr 2011. M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie). © M.D. Guiry.

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
France, Roscoff, 2001, stipe in TS. Ignacio Barbára. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
AlgaeBase image on the cover of Physiologia plantarum. 26 Mar 2009. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux
Cooliva Quay, Co. Clare, Ireland; base and holdfasts of plants on sandy rocks at low water. 28 Apr 2006. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; smooth stipe does not readily snap when bent

Publication details
Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux 1813: 42

Original publication: Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1813). Essai sur les genres de la famille des thalassiophytes non articulées. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293, pls 7-13.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Laminaria.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus digitatus Hudson

Type information
Type locality: Habitat in rupibus marinis [Dwells on marine rocks, England] (Hudson 1762: 475).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), digitate, with leaflets radiating from tip of leaf-stalk (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus digitatus Hudson 1762
Gigantea digitata (Hudson) Stackhouse 1816
Hafgygia digitata (Hudson) Kützing 1843
Saccharina digitata (Hudson) Kuntze 1891

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Laminaria latifolia C.Agardh 1820
Laminaria phycodendron De la Pylaie 1824
Laminaria conica Bory de Saint-Vincent 1826
Laminaria digitata var. latifolia (C.Agardh) Areschoug 1842
Laminaria ensifolia Kützing 1843
Laminaria digitata f. stenophylla Harvey 1851
Laminaria flexicaulis Le Jolis 1855
Laminaria flexicaulis var. cucullata Le Jolis 1856
Laminaria flexicaulis f. ovata Le Jolis 1856
Laminaria flexicaulis f. ensifolia Le Jolis 1856
Laminaria stenophylla (Harvey) J.Agardh 1868
Laminaria digitata var. ensifolia (Kützing) J.Agardh 1868
Laminaria digitata var. integrifolia J.Agardh 1868
Laminaria digitata var. stenophylla (Harvey) Kleen 1874
Laminaria digitata f. latifolia (C.Agardh) Kjellman 1877
Laminaria digitata f. complanata Kjellman 1877
Laminaria digitata f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1883
Laminaria digitata f. ovata (Le Jolis) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria cucullata f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1883
Laminaria flexicaulis f. valida Foslie 1883
Laminaria digitata f. valida (Foslie) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria digitata f. latilaciniata (Foslie) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria flexicaulis f. latilaciniata Foslie 1883
Laminaria digitata f. ensifolia (Le Jolis) Kjellman 1883
Laminaria intermedia Foslie 1884
Laminaria intermedia f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1884
Laminaria digitata f. debilipes Foslie 1884
Laminaria intermedia f. longipes Foslie 1884
Laminaria intermedia f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie 1884
Laminaria digitata f. grandifolia Foslie 1884
Laminaria digitata var. valida (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata f. cuneata Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata var. debilipes (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata f. longipes (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria digitata var. intermedia (Foslie) Kjellman 1890
Laminaria cucullata f. longipes (Foslie) A.D.Zinova 1950

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux)
English: Tangle (Duddington 1966), Sea girdles, Tangle tail, Wheelbangs, Sea wand, Sea ware (Ohmi 1968), Sea Tangle, Horsetail Kelp, Kelp (Madlener 1977), Strap wrack, Oarweed (Anonymous 1978), Oar weed, Horsetail tangle, Sea Girdle (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).

French: Fouet de sorcier (Boisvert 1984).

Gaeilge: Coirrleach, Screadhbhuidhe (Brennan 1950), Coirleach, Ribíní (Anonymous 1978), Feamnach dhubh, Leathrach (Anon. 2000).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
red-ware {Eng}; sea-girdles {Eng}; sea-wand {Eng}; sea-ware {Eng}; seaweed {Eng}; seastaff {Eng}; oarweed {Eng}; laminaire digitTe {Fr}

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus digitatus Hudson)
Ireland: Dublin (Anonymous 1818), Wexford (Tighe 1803).

Europe: Ireland (Tighe 1803, Anonymous 1818).

(as Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J.V.Lamouroux)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), Svalbard (Fredriksen & Kile 2012, Hop et al. 2012), White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013).

Ireland: Antrim (Drummond 1837, Dickie 1871, Adams 1907, Guiry 1978, Morton 1994), Clare (Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979), Cork (Cullinane 1971, Cullinane, McCarthy & Fletcher 1975, Guiry 1978), Derry (Morton 1994), Donegal (Guiry 1978, Morton 2003), Down (Morton 1974, Guiry 1978, Morton 1994), Dublin (Sanders 1860, Guiry 1978), Galway (Foslie 1899, Guiry 1978), Kerry (Guiry 1978, Whelan & Cullinane 1985), Limerick (Cullinane 1969, Guiry 1978), Louth (Synnott 1969, Guiry 1978), Mayo (Guiry 1978), Sligo (Cullinane 1970, Guiry 1978), Waterford (Guiry 1978, Guiry 1978), Wexford (Cotton 1913, Parkes & Scannell 1969, Norton 1970, Guiry 1978), Wicklow (Guiry 1978).

Europe: Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995), Britain (Newton 1931, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Engel et al. 2008), Channel Islands (Engel et al. 2008), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1954, Coppejans 1995, Roeder et al 2005, Connan et al 2006, Pearson et al 2006, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008, Engel et al. 2008, Silberfeld et al. 2011, Anon. 2012), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000, Lam & Harder 2007, Molis et al. 2010, Gruber et al. 2011), Ireland (Adams 1907, Cotton 1912, Cotton 1913, Cullinane 1969, Cullinane 1971, Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Whelan & Cullinane 1985, Morton 1994, McDevit & Saunders 2010, Guiry 2012), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983), Norway (Rueness 1997, Husa, Steem & Sjøtun 2014), Romania (Caraus 2002), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Miranda 1931), Spitsbergen (Vinogradova 1995), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1947).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Price, John & Lawson 1978), E. Greenland (Lund 1959, Pedersen 1976), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972).

North America: Connecticut (Taylor 1957), Maine (Mathieson et al. 2001, McDevit & Saunders 2010), Manitoba (McDevit & Saunders 2010), Massachusetts (Taylor 1957), New Brunswick (Lane et al. 2006, McDevit & Saunders 2010), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), New York (Taylor 1957), Newfoundland (McDevit & Saunders 2010), Nova Scotia (Schmidt & Scheibling 2006, McDevit & Saunders 2010), Quebec (Taylor 1957), Rhode Island (McDevit & Saunders 2010).

Asia: Kamchatka (Vozzhinskaja 1965).

(as Laminaria flexicaulis Le Jolis)
Asia: Japan (Holmes 1896).

(as Laminaria stenophylla (Harvey) J.Agardh)
North America: Maine (Taylor 1957), Massachusetts (Taylor 1957), Newfoundland (Taylor 1957).

(as Laminaria digitata var. ensifolia (Kützing) J.Agardh)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Africa: Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002).

(as Laminaria digitata var. stenophylla (Harvey) Kleen)
Ireland: Mayo (Cotton 1912).

Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Ireland (Cotton 1912, Newton 1931).

(as Laminaria digitata f. complanata Kjellman)
North America: Maine (Taylor 1957), Massachusetts (Taylor 1957).

(as Laminaria digitata f. ensifolia (Le Jolis) Kjellman)
North America: Maine (Taylor 1957), New York (Taylor 1957).

Africa: South Africa (Price, John & Lawson 1978).

(as Laminaria intermedia Foslie)
North America: Connecticut (Taylor 1957), Massachusetts (Taylor 1957).

(as Laminaria intermedia f. cucullata (Le Jolis) Foslie)
North America: Maine (Taylor 1957).

(as Laminaria intermedia f. longipes Foslie)
North America: New Hampshire (Taylor 1957).

(as Laminaria intermedia f. ovata (Le Jolis) Foslie)
North America: Connecticut (Taylor 1957).

(as Laminaria digitata var. valida (Foslie) Kjellman)
Ireland: Mayo (Cotton 1912).

Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Ireland (Cotton 1912).

Nomenclatural notes
Invalid: type variety. - (20 Jan 2014) - M.D. Guiry

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Connan, S., Delisle, F., Deslandes, E. & Gall, E.A. (2006). Intra-thallus phlorotannin content and antioxidant activity in Phaeophyceae of temperate waters. Botanica Marina 49: 39-46.

Dieck, I. tom & Oliveira Filho, E.C. de (1993). The section Digitatae of the genus Laminaria (Phaeophyta) in the northern and southern Atlantic: crossing experiments and temperature response. Marine Biology, Berlin 115: 151-160.

Lane, C.E. & Saunders, G.W. (2005). Molecular investigation reveals epi/endophytic extrageneric kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) gametophytes colonizing Lessoniopsis littoralis thalli. Botanica Marina 48: 426-436.

Lane, C.E., Mayes, C., Druehl, L.D. & Saunders, G.W. (2006). A multi-gene molecular investigation of the kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) supports substantial taxonomic re-organization. Journal of Phycology 42: 493-512.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

McHugh, D.J. (2003). A guide to the seaweed industry. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441: x + 105, 64 figs.

Raybaud, V., Beaugrand, G., Goberville, E., Delebecq, G., Destombe, C., Valero, M., Davoult, D., Morin, P. & Gevaert, F. (2013). Decline in kelp in west Europe and climate. Plos One 8(6): e66044.

SAG Cultures
SAG Cultures may be viewed at http://sagdb.uni-goettingen.de/showstrains.php?genus=Laminaria&species=digitata

SCCAP Cultures
Cultures from the Scandinavian Culture Collection of Algae at the University of Copenhagen (SCCAP) and Protozoa may be viewed at http://www.sccap.dk/search/algaebase.asp?Genus=Laminaria&Species=digitata

NCBI Nucleotide Sequences

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 01 August 2013 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 131583 times since it was created.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Ar Gall, E., Küpper, F.C. & Kloareg, B. (2004). A survey of iodine content in Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina 47: 30-37.
Asensi, A., Ar Gall, E., Marie, D., Billot, C., Dion, P. & Kloareg, B. (2001). Clonal propagation of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) sporophytes through a diploid cell-filament suspension. Journal of Phycology 37: 411-417.
Bartsch, I., Vogt, J., Pehlke, C. & Hanelt, D. (2013). Prevailing sea surface temperatures inhibit summer reproduction of the kelp Laminaria digitata at Helgoland (North Sea). Journal of Phycology 49(6): 1061-1073.
Billot, C., Boury, S., Benet, H. & Kloareg, B. (1999). Development of RAPD markers for parentage analysis in Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina 42: 307-314.
Billot, C., Engel, C.R., Rousvoal, S. & Kloareg, B. (2003). Current patterns, habitat discontinuities and population genetic structure: the case of the kelp Laminaria digitata in the English Channel. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253: 111-121.
Chapman, A., R. O. (1993). Hard data for matrix modelling of Laminaria digitata (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) populations. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 263-267.
Conolly, N.J. & Drew, E.A. (1985). Physiology of Laminaria III. Effect of a coastal eutrophication gradient on seasonal patterns of growth and tissue composition in L. digitata Lamour. and L. saccharina (L.) Lamour.. Mar. Ecol. 6: 181-195.
Corre, S. & Prieur, D. (1990). Density and morphology of epiphytic bacteria on the kelp Laminaria digitata. Botanica Marina 33: 515-523.
Cosson, J. & Gayral, P. (1979). Optimal conditions for growth and fertility of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) Gametophytes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 59-65.
Cosson, J. (1972). Action de la temperature et de la lumière sur l'émission des spores de la Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux (Phéophycée, Laminaliela). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 275: 2501-2504.
Cosson, J. (1973). Action de la température et de la lumière sur le développement du gamétophyte de la Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam. (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 276: 973-976.
Cosson, J. (1973). Influence des conditions de culture sur le développement de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam. (Phéophycées, Laminariales). Soc Phycol de France Bull No 18: 104-112.
Cosson, J. (1975). Action des conditions d'éclairement sur la croissance des gamétophytes de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Soc Phycol de France Bull No 20: 50-54.
Cosson, J. (1976). Evolution de la fertilité des populations de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux (Phéophycée, Laminariale) au cours de l'année. Soc Phycol de France Bull No 21: 28-34.
Cosson, J. (1977). Action de la durée d'éclairement sur la morphogénèse des gamétophytes de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam. (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Bulletin de la Société Phycologique de France 22: 19-26.
Cosson, J., Gayral, P. & Jacques, R. (1976). Action de la composition spectrale de la lumière sur la croissance et la reproduction des gamétophytes de la Laminaria digitata (L.) Lam (Phéophycée, Laminariale). Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 283: 1293-1296.
Davidson, I.R. & Reed, R.H. (1984). The osmotic significance of seasonal changes in the internal solute content of Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 19: 192.
Davison, I.R. & Reed, R.H. (1985). Osmotic adjustment in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta) with particular references to seasonal changes in internal solute concentrations. Journal of Phycology 21: 41-50.
Davison, I.R. & Reed, R.H. (1985). Osmotic adjustment in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta) with particular reference to seasonal changes in internal solute concentrations. Journal of Phycology 21: 41-50, 6 figs, 2 tables.
Davison, I.R. & Stewart, W.D.P. (1983). Seasonal variation of nitrate reductase activity in Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 18: 201-202.
Floc'h, J.-Y. & Penot, M. (1976). Étude comparative du transport à longue distance de différents radioéléments dans le thalle de Laminaria digitata (Linné) Lamouroux. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. Série D 282: 989-992.
Floc'h, J.-Y. & Penot, M. (1981). Translocation of 32p and 86Rb in some brown algae (Laminaria digitata and Fucus vesiculosus): influence of metabolism and sinks. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 176-187.
Forster, R.M. & Dring, M.J. (1991). Blue light increases carbon supply rate in Laminaria digitata. British Phycological Journal 26: 85.
Fries, L. (1980). Axenic tissue cultures from the sporophytes of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 16: 475-477.
Gomez, I. & Lüning, K. (2001). Constant short-day treatment of outdoor-cultivated Laminaria digitata prevents summer drop in growth rate. European Journal of Phycology 36: 391-396.
Gruber, A., Roleda, M.Y., Bartsch, I., Hanelt, D. & Wiencke, C. (2011). Sporogenesis under ultraviolet radiation in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) reveals protection of photosensitive meiospores within soral tissue: physiological and anatomical evidence. Journal of Phycology 47(3): 603-614.
Gunnarsson, K. (1991). Populations de Laminaria hyperborea et Laminaria digitata (Phéophycées) dans la Baie de Breidifjördur, Islande. Journal of the Marine Institue Reykjavik 12: 148.
Hagen Rødde, R. S., Østgaard, K. & Larsen, B. A. (1993). Mannuronan C-5 epimerase activity in protoplasts of Laminaria digitata. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 577-581.
Hagen Rødde, R.S. & Larsen, B. (1997). Protoplasts of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) - Cultivation and Biosynthesis of Alginate. Botanica Marina 40: 391-395.
Hagen Rødde, R.S., Østgaard, K. & Larsen, B. (1997). Chemical composition of protoplasts of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 40: 385-390.
Haug, A. & Jensen, A. (1956). Seasonal variation in chemical composition of Laminaria digitata from different parts of the Norwegian Coast. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 2: 10-15.
Hellebust, J.A. & Haug, A. (1972). In situ studies on alginic acid synthesis and other aspects of the metabolism of Laminaria digitata. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 177-184.
Hellebust, J.A. & Haug, A. (1972). Photosynthesis, translocation, and alginic acid synthesis in Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 169-176.
Indergaard, M. & Jensen, A. (1981). Nitrate and phosphate uptake in small populations of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 411-417.
Indergaard, M. & Skjåk-Braek, G. (1987). Characteristics of alginate from Laminaria digitata cultivated in a high-phosphate enviornment. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 541-549.
Jensen, A. & Haug, A. (1952). Fargereaksjon til adskillelse av Stortare (Laminaria cloustonii) og Fingertare (Laminaria digitata). Tidsskr. Kjemi, Bergvesen oc Metallurgi 8: 138-139.
Jensen, A. (1956). Preliminary investigations of the carbohydrates of Laminaria digitata and Fucus serratus. Reports of the Norwegian Institute of Seaweed Research No. 10: .
Jordan, P., Kloareg, B. & Vilter, H. (1991). Detection of vanadate-dependent bromoperoxidases in protoplasts from the brown algae Laminaria digitata and L. saccharina. Journal of Plant Physiology 137(5): 520-524.
King, R.J. & Schramm, W. (1976). Determination of photosynthetic rates for the marine algae Fucus vesiculosus and Laminaria digitata. Marine Biology, Berlin 37: 209-213.
Klenell, M., Snoeijs, P. & Pedersén, M. (2002). The involvement of a membrane H+-ATPase in the blue-light enhancement of photosynthesis in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 38: 1143-1149.
Kylin, H. (1916). Über die Generationswechsel bei Laminaria digitata. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 10: 551-561.
Le Jolis, A. (1855). Examen des espèces confondues sous le nom de Laminaria digitata auct., suivi de quelques observations sur le genre Laminaria. Mémoires e la Société Nationale des Sciences Naturelles et Mathématiques de Cherbourg 3: 241-312.
Le Jolis, A. (1856). Examen des espèces confrondues sous le nom de Laminaria digitata, suivi de quelques observations sur le genre Laminaria. Novorum actorum Academie Casareae Leopoldino-Carolinae naturae curiosorum 25: 531-591.
Lüning, K., Wagner, A. & Buchholz, C. (2000). Evidence for inhibitors of sporangium formation in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) during the season of rapid growth (Note). Journal of Phycology 36: 1129-1134.
Maier, I. & Müller, D.G. (1982). Antheridium fine structure and spermatozoid release in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 21: 1-8, 16 figs.
Maier, I. & Müller, D.G. (1990). Chemotaxis in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). I. Analysis of spermatozoid movement.. J. exp. Bot. 41: 869-876.
Maier, I., Müller, D.G., Schmid, C., Boland, W. & Jaenicke, L. (1988). Pheromone receptor specificity and threshold concentrations for spermatozoid release in Laminaria digitata. Naturwissenschaften 75: 260-263.
Mathieson, A.C., Swan, E.F. & Fralick, R.A. (1972). An abnormal specimen of Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux. Rhodora 74: 127-130.
Mikelstad, S. (1968). Ion-exchange properties of brown algae. I. Determination of ratio mechanism for calcium-hydrogen ion-exchange for particles for Laminaria hyperbora and Laminaria digitata. J. Appl. Chem. 18: 30-36.
Molis, M., Enge, A. & Karsten, U. (2010). Grazing impact of, and indirect interactions between mesograzers associated with kelp (Laminaria digitata. Journal of Phycology 46(1): 76-84.
Moss, B. (1977). Attachment of the holdfasts of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) Lamour. British Phycological Journal 12: 121.
Moulin, P., Crépineau, F., Kloareg, B. & Boyen, C. (1999). Isolation and characterization of six cDNAs involved in carbon metabolism in Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 35: 1237-1245.
Müller, D.G., Gassmann, G. & Lüning, K. (1979). Isolation of spermatozoid-releasing and -attracting substance from female gametophytes of Laminaria digitata. Nature, London 279: 430-431.
Pérez, R. (1969). Croissance de Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamouroux etudiée sur trois années consécutives. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 329-344.
Pedersén, M. (1983). Ultrastructural localization of bromine and iodine in the stipes of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) Lamour., Laminaria saccharina (L.) Lamour. and Laminaria hyperborea (Gunn.) Fosl.. Botanica Marina 26: 113-118.
Penot, M. & Videau, C. (1975). Adsorption du 86Rb et du 99Mo par deux algues marines: Le Laminaria digitata et le Fucus serratus. Zeits. Pflanzenphysiol. 76: 285-293.
Perez, R. (1969). Etude biometrique d'une population de Laminaria digitata Lamouroux de l'etage infralittoral profond. I. -Résultats relatifs aux dimensions des thalles. Rev. Trav. Inst. Pêches marit. 33: 117-135.
Pérez, R. (1969). Le repeuplement des champs de Laminaria digitata. Influence comparée de la coupe et de l'arrachage. Science et Peche : .
Printz, H. (1962). Phykochronologische Untersuchungen in Assoziationen von Laminaria digitata (L.) Lamour. f. stenophylla (Kütz.) Harv. an der norwegischen Westküste. Arch. für. Mikrobiol. 42: 64-73.
Rodrigues, M.A., Pereira dos Santos, C., Yoneshigue Valentin, Y., Strbac, D. & Hall, D.O. (2000). Photosynthetic light-response curves and photoinhibition of the deep-water Laminaria abyssalis and the intertidal Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 36: 97-106.
Rodrigues, M.A., Pereira dos Santos, C., Young, A.J., Strbac, D. & Hall, D.O. (2002). A smaller and impaired xanthophyll cycle makes the deep sea macroalgae Laminaria abyssalis (Phaeophyceae) highly sensitive to daylight when compared with shallow water Laminaria digitata. Journal of Phycology 38: 939-947.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2014. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 September 2014.

Algaebase taxon LSID: urn:lsid:algaebase.org:taxname:77510

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