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Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Gigartinaceae
Genus Chondracanthus

Pictures

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Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Northern California. 08 Mar 2011. Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org). © Wendell Wood (ww@oregonwild.org).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Bamfield, Vancouver Island, Canada; plants at low water. 27 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Bamfield, Vancouver Island, Canada; plants at low water. 27 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Bamfield, Vancouver Island, Canada; plants at low water. 27 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Bamfield, Vancouver Island, British Columbia; mature plants on ropes in farm. 26 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Bamfield, Vancouver Island, British Columbia; mature plants on ropes in farm. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey
Bamfield, Vancouver Island, British Columbia; mature plants on ropes in farm; sold as "Turkish Towel". 27 Apr 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey Bamfield, Vancouver Island, British Columbia; mature plants on ropes in farm; sold as "Turkish Towel"

Publication details
Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey in Hughey, R.Dudash & C.K.Kjeldsen 1996: 23

Published in: Hughey, J.R. Dudash, R. & Kjeldsen, C. K. (1996). A field and molecular systematic study on species of Chondracanthus (Gigartinales, Rhodophyceae) from Pacific North America. Journal of Phycology 32: 22-23.

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Chondracanthus is Chondracanthus chauvinii (Bory) Kützing.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gigartina exasperata Harvey & Bailey

Type information
Type locality: Oposite Fort Nisqually, Puget Sound, Washington, USA (Hughey & Hommersand 2008: 137). Lectotype: cystocarpic specimen: 1838-1842; TCD 94544 (Hughey & Hommersand 2008: 137).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gigartina exasperata Harvey & Bailey 1851

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gigartina radula f. exasperata (Harvey & Bailey) Setchell & N.L.Gardner 1903

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Gigartina exasperata Harvey & Bailey)
English: Turkish Twel (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983), Turkish towel (McConnaughey 1985).

Description
Thalli 20-70 cm tall, fleshy or crisp, yellowish- green to brownish-red in sheltered habitats, brick red (north of Point Conception and in Baja California) or pink (south of Point Conception to the Mexican border) on exposed coasts, consisting of one to several blades from a discoid holdfast up to 1 cm broad; blades 6- 20 cm wide, 0.2-3 mm thick, simple or forked, lanceolate to long-elliptical and tapered to a blunt or acuminate tip, the margins entire or dentate or sometimes bearing bladelets; stipitate, the stipe usually 2-3 cm long bearing lateral bladelets and expanding to a short, fleshy and flattened cuneate base; surface and margins of blades, except the base covered with closely to widely spaced, spinose outgrowths; cortex 5-7 cell layers thick; medullary cells variable in size and shape, 1.5-24 mm in width. Spermatangial sori superficial, indefinite on slender, elongate papillae with thin attenuating tips. Gonimoblast forming a compact group of cells around the auxiliary cell with cortical and medullary cells producing short-celled filaments circling the gonimoblasts; later in development, a well-defined envelope composed of short and dense filaments forms to surround the carposporophyte. Cystocarps 0.8-1.5 mm in diameter, hemispherical, frequently fusing to form a single, compound cystocarp, located in papillae that are sometimes ornamented with spines, 1-3 per papilla. Carpospores subspherical, 12-18 µm in diameter, at maturity released through an ostiole. Tetrasporangial sori 0.2-1 mm in diameter, developing at the junction between the emerging papilla and the blade. Tetrasporangia 34-42 µm in diameter, transforming from primary cortical filaments in branched chains 9-12 cells long. As the papilla grows, the new primary cortical filaments are transformed into tetrasporangial chains, sometimes forming 2-3 hemiispherical rings of sori on the nipple-like papillae. At maturity tetraspores are released through cracks in the cortical wall, leaving behind an empty cavity.

Habitat
Low intertidal, exposed rocky headlands to sheltered localities.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gigartina exasperata Harvey & Bailey)
North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977, Scagel et al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989), California (Silva 1979, Scagel et al. 1989, Stewart 1991, Hughey et al. 1996), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Washington (Scagel et al. 1989).

(as Chondracanthus exasperatus (Harvey & Bailey) Hughey)
North America: Alaska (Mondragon & Mondragon 2003 , Hughey & Hommersand 2008, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), Baja California (Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), British Columbia (Hughey & Hommersand 2008, Schneider et al. 2011), California (Hughey & Hommersand 2008, Miller 2012, Augyte & Shaughnessy 2014 ), Mexico (Hughey & Hommersand 2008), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Washington (Murru & Sandgren 2004, Hughey & Hommersand 2008, Demes et al. 2011, Galloway et al. 2012).

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Hughey, J.R. & Hommersand, M.H. (2008). Morphological and molecular systematic study of Chondracanthus (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) from Pacific North America. Phycologia 47: 124-155.

Hughey, J.R. & Hommersand, M.H. (2008). Morphological and molecular systematic study of Chondracanthus (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) from Pacific North America. Phycologia 47: 124-155.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Murru, M. & Sandgren, C.D. (2004). Habitat matters for inorganic carbon acquisition in 38 species of red macroalgae (Rhodophyta) from Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Journal of Phycology 40: 837-845, 2 figs, 1 table.

Schubert, N., Garcia-Mendoza, E. & Pacheco-Ruiz, I. (2006). Carotenoid composition of marine red algae. Journal of Phycology 42: 1208-1216.

Created: 13 April 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 22 August 2013 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 7261 times since it was created.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 October 2017.

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