152,947 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,947 images, 59,170 bibliographic items, 408,277 distributional records.

Species References

Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C.Agardh

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)



Alveal, K., Romo, H. & Avila, M. (1982). Estudio del ciclo de vida de Macrocystis pyrifera de Isla Navarino, Chile. Gay. Bot. 39: 1-12.
Amsler, C.D. & Neushul, M. (1989). Chemotactic effect of nutrients onspores of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica. Marine Biology, Berlin 102: 557-564.
Amsler, C.D. & Neushul, M. (1990). Nutrient stimulation of spore settlement in the kelps Pterygophora californica and Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, Berlin 107(2): 297-304.
Amsler, C.D. & Neushul, M. (1991). Photosynthetic physiology and chemical composition of spores of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera, Nereocystis leutkeana, Laminaria farlowii, and Pterygophora californica (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 27: 26-34.
Anderson, B.S., Hunt, J.W., Turpen, S.L., Coulon, A.R. & Martin, M. (1990). Copper toxicity to microscopic stages of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera - interpopulation comparisons and temporal variability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 68(1-2): 147-156.
Anderson, L. M. (1984). Iron reduction by juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 493-497.
Arnold, K.E. & Manley, S.L. (1985). Carbon allocation in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta): intrinsic variability in photosynthesis and respiration. Journal of Phycology 21: 154-167, 13 figs, 2 tables.
Asensi, A., Beucher, M. & Delepine, R. (1981). Etude sur la croissance et le developpement de Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. aux iles Kerguelen. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 8: 278-289.
Barrales, H. (1976). Relevamiento de Macrocystis pyrifera y normas para su explotación. Inf. Téc. CNP 1.3.1: 74.
Barrales, H.L. & Lobban, C.S. (1975). The comparative ecology of Macrocystis pyrifera, with emphasis on the forests of Chubut, Argentina. Journal of Ecology 63: 657-677.
Beas-Luna, R. & Ladah, L.B. (2014). Latitudinal, seasonal, and small-scale spatial differences of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and an herbivore at their southern range limit in the northern hemisphere. Botanica Marina 57(2): 73-83.
Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. & Paternoster, I. (1980). Observaciones preliminares sobre la reproducción de Macrocystis pyrifera en la costa Argentina. Contribución CNP 30: 9.
Boraso de Zaixso, A.L., Zaixso, H. & Taylor, R. (1982). Cortes experimentales en bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera en Bahía Camarones (prov. de Chubut, Rep. Argentina). Contribución CNP 67: 22.
Boraso, A.L. & Taylor, R. (1980). Dinámica de los bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera en Bahía Camarones (Chubut). Resultado de las campañas I y II (8/77-5/78 y 7/78-4/79). Contribución CENPAT 24: 16.
Borras-Chavez, R., Edwards, M.S., Arvizu-Higuera, D.L., Rodríguez-Montesinos, Y.E., Hernández-Carmona, G. & Briceño-Domínguez, D. (2016). Repetitive harvesting of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) and its effects on chemical constituents of economic value. Botanica Marina 59(1): 63-71.
Brown, M.B., Edwards, M.S. & Kim, K.Y. (2014). Effects of climate change on the physiology of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and grazing by purple urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 29(3): 203-215.
Brown, M.T., Nyman, M.A., Keogh, J.A. & Chin, N.K.M. (1997). Seasonal growth of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in New Zealand. Marine Biology, Berlin 129: 417-424.
Brzezinski, M.A., Reed, D.C. & Amsler, C.D. (1993). Neutral lipids as major storage products in zoospores of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 16 -23, 5 figs, 1 table.
Buggeln, R.G., Fensom, D.S. & Emerson, C.J. (1985). Translocation of 11C-photoassimilate in the blade of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 21: 35-40.
Buschmann, A.H., Moreno, C., Vasquez, J.A. & Hernandez-Gonzalez, M.C. (2007). Reproduction strategies of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) in Southern Chile: The importance of population dynamics. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 349-356.
Butler, A., Soedjak, H.S., Polnefuller, M., Gibor, A., Boyen, C. & Kloareg, B. (1990). Studies of Vanadium-bromoperoxidase using surface and cortical protoplasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 589-592.
Candia, A., Romo, H., Alveal, K. & Dellarossa, V. (1979). Cultivo unialgal de Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. de la Bahía de Concepción-Chile. Rickia 8: 75-83.
Carney, L.T. & Edwards, M.S. (2010). Role of nutrient fluctuations and delayed development in gametophyte reproduction by Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) in southern California. Journal or Phycology 46(5): 987-996.
Cazon, J.P., Viera, M., Sala, S. & Donati, E. (2014). Biochemical characterization of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae) in relation to their potentiality as biosorbents. Phycologia 53(1): 100-108.
Chirife, J. & Gardner, R. G. (1969). Características de secado de algas de la especie: Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 6: 671-684.
Clendennen, S.K., Zimmerman, R.C., Powers, D.A. & Alberte, R.S. (1996). Photosynthetic response of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) to ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Phycology 32: 614-620, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Clendenning, K. A. (1964). Photosynthesis and growth in Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 55-65.
Clendenning, K.A. (1962). Determination of fresh weight, solids, ash and equilibrium moisture in Macrocystis pyrifera. Botanica Marina 3-4: 204-218.
Colombo-Pallotta, M.F., Garcia-Mendoza, E. & Ladah, L.B. (2006). Photosynthetic performance, light absorption, and pigment composition of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) blades from different depths. Journal of Phycology 42: 1225-1234.
Correa, T., Gutiérrez, A., Flores, R., Buschmann, A.J., Cornejo, P. & Bucarey, C. (2016). Production and economic assesment of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera cultivation for abalone feed in the south of Chile. Aquaculture Research 47(3): 698-707.
Coyer, J.A., Robertson, D.L. & Alberte, R.S. (1994). Genetic variability within a population and between diploid/haploid tissue of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 30: 545-552, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Coyer, J.A., Robertson, D.L. & Alberte, R.S. (1995). Genetic variability and parentage in Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) using multi-locus DNA fingerprinting. Journal of Phycology 31: 819-823, 2 tables.
Coyer, J.A., Steller, D.L. & Alberte, R.S. (1995). Note: A field-compatible method for extraction of fingerprint-quality DNA from Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 177-180, 2 figs, 1 table.
Cribb, A.B. (1954). Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) Ag. in Tasmanian waters. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 5: 1-34.
Davison, I.R. & Polne-Fuller, M. (1990). Note: Photosynthesis in protoplasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 383-387, 3 figs.
Davison, I.R. & Polnefuller, M. (1990). Photosynthesis in Protoplasts of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 26: 384-387.
de Nys, R., Jameson, P.E. & Brown, M.T. (1991). The influence of cytokinins on the growth of Macrocystis pyrifera. Botanica Marina 34: 465-467.
de Nys, R., Jameson, P.E., Chin, N., Brown, M.T. & Sanderson, K.J. (1990). The cytokinins as endogenous growth regulators in Macrocystis pyrifera (I.) C. Ag. (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina 33: 467-475.
Dean, T.A. & Jacobsen, F.R. (1984). Growth of juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales) in relation to environmental factors. Marine Biology, Berlin 83: 301-311.
Delf, E.M. & Levyn, M. (née M. Michell) (1926). Reproduction in Macrocystis pyrifera, Ag.. An. Bot. 40: 503-506.
Devinny, J.S. & Volse, L.A. (1978). Effects of sediments on the development of Macrocystis pyrifera gametophytes. Marine Biology 48: 343-348.
Deysher, L.E. & Dean, T.A. (1984). Critical irradiance levels and the interactive effects of quantum irradiance and dose on gametogenesis in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Journal of Phycology 20: 520-524, 3 figs, 1 table.
Deysher, L.E. & Dean, T.A. (1986). Interactive effects of light and temperature on sporophyte production in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Marine Biology, Berlin 93: 17-20.
Dixon, J., Schroeter, S.C. & Kastendiek, J. (1981). Effects of the encrusting Bryozoan, Membranipora membranacea, on the loss of blades and fronds by the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales). Journal of Phycology 17: 341-345, 1 fig, 6 tables.
Dizerbo, A.-H. & Floc'h, J.-Y. (1974). L'algue geante Macrocystis pyrifera et le probleme de son introduction. Penn ar Bed 9(No 78): 407-415.
Drobnitch, S.T., Nickols, K. & Edwards, M. (2017). Abiotic influences on bicarbonate use in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, in the Monterey Bay. Journal of Phycology 53(1): 85-94.
Druehl, L. D. (1984). Morphological and physiological responses of Macrocystis pyrifera in nitrate enrichment. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 471-474.
Druehl, L.D. (1984). Morphological and physiological responses of Macrocystis pyrifera to nitrate enrichment. Hydrobiologia 116/117: 471-474.
Eardley, D.D., Sutton, C.W., Hempel, W.M., Reed, D.C. & Ebeling, A.W. (1990). Monoclonal anitbodies specific for sulfated polysaccharides on the surface of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 26: 54-62, 8 figs, 1 table.
Edgar, G.J. (1987). Dispersal of faunal and floral propagules associated with drifting Macrocystis pyrifera plants. Marine Biology, Berlin 95: 599-610.
Eyras, M.C. & Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (1994). Observaciones sobre la fertilidad de los esporofitos de Macrocystis pyrifera en la costa Argentina. Naturalia Patagónica 2: 33-47.
Fain, S.R. & Murray, S.N. (1982). Effects of light and temperature on net photosynthesis and dark respiration of gametophytes and embryonic sporophytes of Macrocystis pyrifera. Journal of Phycology 18: 92-98.
Fernández, P.A., Hurd, C.L. & Roleda, M.Y. (2014). Bicarbonate uptake via an anion exchange protein is the main mechanism of inorganic carbon acquisition by the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) under variable pH. Journal of Phycology 50(6): 998-1008.
Fork, D.C., Herbert, S.K. & Malkin, S. (1991). Light energy distribution in the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp). Plant Physiol 95(3): 731-739.
Foster, M.S. (1975). Algal succession in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest. Marine Biology, Berlin 32: 313-329.
Foster, M.S. (1975). Regulation of algal community development in a Macrocystis pyrifera forest. Marine Biology, Berlin 32: 331-342.
Fox, M.D. (2013). Resource translocation drives delta13C fractionation during recovery from disturbance in giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Letter). Journal of Phycology 49(5): 811-815.
Gerard, V. A. & North, W. J. (1984). Measuring growth, production, and yield of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 321-324.
Gerard, V.A. & Kirkman, H. (1984). Ecological observations on a branched , loose-lying form of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agaradh in New Zeland. Botanica Marina 27: 105-109.
Gherardini, G. L. & North, W. J. (1972). Electron microscopic studies of Macrocystis pyrifera zoospores, gametophytes, and early sporophytes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 7: 172-180.
Grenville, D.J., Petersen, R.L., Barrales, H.L. & Gerrath, J.F. (1982). Structure and development of the secretory cells and duct system in Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. A. Agardh. Journal of Phycology 18: 232-240.
Gutierrez, A., Correa, T., Munoz, V., Santibanez, A., Marcos, R., Caceres, C. & Buschmann, A.H. (2007). Farming of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in southern Chile for development of novel food products. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 18: 33-41.
Guzmán del Próo, S.A., de la Campa de Guzmán, S. & Granados, J.L. (1971). El sargazo gigante (Macrocystis pyrifera) y su explotación en Baja California. Rev. Soc. Mex. de Hist. Nat., México 32(12): 15-57.
Haines, K.C. & Wheeler, P.A. (1978). Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the marine macrophytes Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta) and Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 319-324, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Hall, M.A. & Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (1981). Ciclo de los bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera en Bahía Camarones, prov. de Chubut, Argentina. Ecosur 6(12): 165-184.
Hall, M.A. (1980). Evaluación de los recursos de Macrocystis pyrifera Costa de la Prov. de Chubut entre Pta. Lobos y Pta Gaviota. Contribución CENPAT 31: 5.
Hart, M. R., Fremery, D. d., Lyon, C. K. & Kohler, G. O. (1979). Processing of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) for fermentation to methane. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 493-498.
Haxo, F. T. & Neushul, M. J. (1958). Studies on the growth of the giant Kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 17-18.
Hempel, W.M., Sutton, C.W., Kaska, D., Ord, D.C., Reed, D.C., Laur, D.R., Ebeling, A.W. & Eardley, D.D. (1989). Purification of species specific antibodies to carbohydrate components of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 25: 144-149, 5 figs.
Henriquez, L.A., Buschmann, A.H., Maldonado, M.A., Graham, M.H., Hernández-González, M.C., Pereda, S.V. & Bobadilla, M.I. (2011). Grazing on giant kelp microscopic phases and the recruitment success of annual populations of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in southern Chile. Journal of Phycology 47(2): 252-258.
Hernández-Carmona, G., García, O., Robledo, D. & Foster, M. (2000). Restoration techniques for Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) populations at the southern limit of their distribution in México. Botanica Marina 43: 273-284, 4 figs, 5 tables.
Hernandez-Carmona, G., Hughes, B. & Graham, M.H. (2006). Reproductive longevity of drifting kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae) in Monterey Bay, USA. Journal of Phycology 42: 1199-1207.
Hernández-Carmona, G., Robledo, D. & Serviere-Zaragoza, E. (2001). Effect of nutrient availability on Macrocystis pyrifera recruitment and survival near Its southern limit off Baja California. Botanica Marina 44: 221-229.
Hernández-Carmona, G., Rodríguez-Montesinos, Y.E., Casas-Valdes, M.M., Vilchis, M.A. & Sánchez-Rodríguez, I. (1991). Evaluación de los mantos de Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) e Baja California, México. III Verano 1986 y su variación estacional. Cienc. mar. 17(4): 121-145.
Hurd, C.L. & Pilditch, C.A. (2011). Flow-induced morphological variations affect diffusion boundary-layer thickness of Macrocystis pyrifera (Heterokontophyta, Laminariales). Journal of Phycology 47(2): 341-351.
Jackson, G.A. (1977). Nutrients and production of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, off southern California. Limnology and Oceanography 22: 979-995.
Jackson, G.A., James, D.E. & North, W.J. (1985). Morphological relationships among fronds of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera off La Jolla, California. Marine Ecology Progress Series 26: 261-270.
James, D.E., Stull, J.K. & Wheeler, J.N. (1990). Toxicity of sewage-contaminated sediment cores to Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) gametophytes determined by digital image analysis. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 483-489.
Kain, J.M. (1982). Morphology and growth of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera in New Zealand and California. Marine Biology, Berlin 67: 143-157.
Kimura, R.S. & Foster, M. S. (1984). The effects of harvesting Macrocystis pyrifera on the algal assemblage in a giant kelp forest. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 425-428.
Kinlan, B.P., Graham, M.H., Sala, E. & Dayton, P.K. (2003). Arrested development of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, Phaeophyceae) embryonic sporophytes: a mechanism for delayed recruitment in perennial kelps?. Journal of Phycology 39: 47-57.
Koch, K., Thiel, M., Hagen, W., Graeve, M., Gómez, I., Jofre, D., Hofmann, L.C., Tala, F. & Bischof, K. (2016). Short- and long-term acclimation patterns of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) along a depth gradient. Journal of Phycology 52(2): 260-273.
Kopczak, C.D. (1994). Variability of nitrate uptake capacity in Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) with nitrate and light availability. Journal of Phycology 30: 573-580, 5 figs, 4 tables.
Kopczak, C.D., Zimmerman, R.C. & Kremer, J.N. (1991). Variation in nitrogen physiology and growth among geographically isolated populations of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 27: 149-158.
Kuwabara, J.S. & North, W.J. (1980). Culturing microscopic stages of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) in Aquil, a chemically defined medium. Journal of Phycology 16: 546-549, 3 tables.
Kuwabara, J.S. (1981). Gametophytic growth by Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) in response to various iron and zinc concentrations. Journal of Phycology 17: 417-419, 1 fig, 2 tables.
Kühnemann, O. (1970). Algunas consideraciones sobre los bosques de Macrocystis pyrifera. Physis 29(79): 273-296.
Ladah, L.B. & Zertuche-Gonzalez, J.A. (2004). Giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) survival in deep water (25-40 m) during El Nino of 1997-1998 in Baja California, Mexico. Botanica Marina 47: 367-372.
Ladah, L.B., Zertuche-González, J.A. & Hernández-Carmona, G. (1999). Giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, Phaeophyceae) recruitment near its southern limit in Baja California after mass disappearance during ENSO 1997-1998. Journal of Phycology 35: 1106-1112.
Larripa, I. B., Murdy de Pargament, M., Labal de Vinuesa, M. & Mayer, A., M. S. (1987). Biological activity in Macrocystis pyrifera from Argentina: sodium alginate, fucoidan and laminaran. II. Genotoxicity. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 491-496.
Leal, P.B., Hurd, C.L., Sander, S.G., Kortner, B. & Roledo, M.Y. (2016). Exposure to chronic and high dissolved copper concentrations impedes meiospore development of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida (Ochrophyta). Phycologia 55(1): 12-20.
Leal, P.P., Hurd, C.L. & Roleda, M.Y. (2014). Meiospores produced in sori of nonsporophyllous laminae of Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) may enhance reproductive output (Note). Journal of Phycology 50(2): 400-405.
Leal, P.P., Hurd, C.L., Fernández, P.A. & Roledo, M.Y. (2017). Ocean acidification and kelp development: reduced pH has no negative effects on meiospore germination and gametophyte development of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida. Journal of Phycology 53(3): 557-566.
Macaya, E.C. & Zuccarello, G.C. (2010). Genetic structure of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera along the southeastern Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series 420: 103-112.
Manley, S. & North, W. (1981). Micronutrient uptake by juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag.. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 10: 467-472.
Manley, S.L. & North, W.J. (1984). Phosphorus and the growth of juvenile Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) sporophytes. Journal of Phycology 20: 389-393.
Manley, S.L. (1983). Note: Composition of sieve tube sap from Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) with emphasis on the inorganic constituents. Journal of Phycology 19: 118-121, 1 table.
Manley, S.L. (1984). Micronutrient uptake and translocation by Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 20: 192-201, 6 figs, 6 tables.
Manley, S.L. (1985). Phosphate uptake by blades of Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Botanica Marina 28: 237-244.
Mayer, A. M. S., Diaz, A., Pesce, A., Criscuolo, M., F., G. J. & de Lederkremer, R. M. (1987). Biological activity in Macrocystis pyrifera from Argentina: sodium alginate, fucoidan and laminaran. III. Antiviral activity. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 497-500.
Mayer, A. M. S., Krotz, L., Bonfil, R. D., Bustuobad, O. D., Groisman, J. F., de Lederkremer, R. M. & Stierle, D. B. (1987). Biological activity in Macrocystis pyrifera from Argentina. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 12: 483-489.
McKee, J.W.A., Kavalieris, L., Brasch, D.J., Brown, M.T. & Melton, L.D. (1992). Alginate content and composition of Macrocystis pyrifera from New Zealand. Journal of Applied Phycology 4: 357-369.
Murúa, P., Müller, D.G., Patiño, D.J. & Westermeier, R. (2017). Giant kelp vegetative propagation: adventitious holdfast elements rejuvenate senescent individuals of the Macrocystis pyrifera "integrifolia" ecomorph (Note). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 230-234.
North, W. J. (1958). Quantitative measurements of importance for ecological evaluations in beds of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera : Aerial estimation , stipe index, stipes per plant and loss index. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 3: 37.
North, W. J. (1964). Experimental transplantation of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 4: 248-255.
Nyman, M. A., Brown, M. T., Neushul, M., Harger, B. W. W. & Keogh, J. A. (1993). Mass distribution in the fronds of Macrocystis pyrifera from New Zealand and California. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 57-65.
Nyman, M.A., Brown, M.T., Neushul, M., Harger, B.W.W. & Keogh, J.A. (1993). Mass distribution in the fronds of Macrocystis pyrifera from New Zealand and California. Hydrobiologia 260/261: 57-65.
Ortiz, J., Uquiche, E., Robert, P., Romero, N., Quitral, N., & Llantén, C. (2009). Functional and nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Codium fragile, Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 111: 320-?.
Papenfuss, G.F. (1942). Studies of South African Phaeophyceae. I. Ecklonia maxima, Laminaria pallida, Macrocystis pyrifera. American Journal of Botany 29: 15-24.
Pertini, F., Taylor, R., Boraso, A.L. & Dominguez, P. (1980). Evaluación de los recursos de Macrocystis pyrifera. II. Costa de la provincia de Chubut entre Pta. Gaviota y Pta. Marquez. Contribución CENPAT 51: 25.
Reed, D.C. (1987). Factors affecting the production of sporophylls in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag.. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 113: 61-69.
Reed, D.C., Neushul, M. & Ebeling, A.W. (1991). Role of settlement density on gametophyte growth and reproduction in the kelps Pterygophora californica and Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 27: 361-366.
Rigg, G.B. (1913). The distribution of Macrocystis pyrifera along the american shore of the Strait of Jaun de Fuca. Torreya 13: 158-159.
Romanello, E. & Boraso de Zaixso, A.L. (1993). Evaluación recursos de Macrocystis pyrifera. III. Costa de la Provincia de Santa Cruz entre Pta. Murphy y Pta Desengaño. Natualia Patagónica Serie Cs. Biol. 1(2): 69-75.
Romo, H., Alveal, K. & Avila, M. (1984). El efecto de la poda en sobrevivencia, tamaño y rendimiento de Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) J. Ag. (Lessoniaceae) de Isla Navarino - Chile. Gay. Bot. 41: 127-135.
Rosenthal, R.J., Clarke, W.D. & Dayton, P.K. (1974). Ecology and natural history of a stand of giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, off Del Mar, California. Fish. Bull. 72: 670-684.
Rothausler, E., Gomez, I., Hinojosa, I.A., Karsten, U., Tala, F. & Thiel, M. (2011). Physiological performance of floating giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyceae): latitudinal variability in the effects of temperature and grazing. Journal of Phycology 47(2): 269-281.
Rothäusler, E., Reinwald, B.A., López, B.A., Tala, F. & Thiel, M. (2018). High acclimation potential in floating Macrocystis pyrifera to abiotic conditions even under grazing pressure - a field study. Journal of Phycology 54(3): 368-379.
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Seifert, G. L. & Wood, H. C. (1956). The use of Macrocystis pyrifera as source of trace elements in human nutrition. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 2: 107-108.
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