157,562 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,210 images, 60,980 bibliographic items, 458,858 distributional records.

Eremosphaera De Bary, 1858

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Trebouxiophyceae
Order Chlorellales
Family Oocystaceae

Holotype species: Eremosphaera viridis De Bary

Original publication and holotype designation: De Bary, A. (1858). Untersuchungen über die Familie der Conjugaten (Zygnemeen und Desmidieen) Ein Beitrag zur physiologischen und beschreibenden Botanik. pp. [i]-vi, 1-91. Leipzig: A. Förstnersche Buchhandlung (Arthur Felix).
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Tsarenko, P.M. (2011). Trebouxiophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 61-108. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..

Taxonomic notes
Darienko et al. (2010: fig. 1) place Eremosphaera viridis in the Oocystis-clade. Neustupa et al. (2011: fig. 22) include this in the Chlorellales. - (16 Mar 2011) - Wendy Guiry

Description: Thalli sometimes colonial in clusters of 2-4, mostly solitary with spherical to subspherical or ellipsoidal cells with or without conspicuous mucilaginous envelope. Cells 23-130 x 20-120 µm with cellulosic cell walls 0.5-1.0 µm thick; most species with polar thickenings; one species, E. oocystoides with numerous radial spicules. Cells with large central vacuole traversed by radial strands of cytoplasm which connect central nucleus to periphery. Cytoplasm often with numerous granules and oil droplets; calcium oxalate crystals in E<. viridis. Nuclei single and mostly central, 5-31 µm diameter, with up to five nucleoli; numerous chloroplasts parietal, discoid to elongate, occasionally radial in cytoplasmic strands; each chloroplast with 1-3 pyrenoids, often surrounded with starch grains. Asexual reproduction by autospores; 2-4 per sporangium and released by rupture of parental cell wall which often remains distinct in culture. Cytokinesis in E. viridis unusual in that plasmalemma formation associated with fusion of open membranes rather than vesicles. Open membranes may originate through bursting of heavily staining vesicles. Sexual reproduction oogamous and homothallic, known only in E. viridis. Eggs similar to autospores, producing fertilization papilla at maturity. Sperm biflagellate and spherical, without plastids or stigma, 16-64 per antheridium; produced by repeated bipartitions of protoplasts. After fertilization zygotes produce thickened walls. Chromosomes described only in E. viridis with n? = 80.

Information contributed by: D.J. Garbary & M.D. Guiry. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 9 Feb 2014 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Species planktonic or benthic, associated with both acidic and alkaline freshwater in ponds, lakes and rivers in cool to tropical climates; reported from North America, Cuba, Europe and Australia. E. antillara, E. oocystoides and possibly E. minor endemic to North America and/or Cuba. Extracellular mucilage with fibrillar and slimy components; high polyuronic acid formation associated with increased phosphorus in medium. Fibrils ca 7 nm diameter with occasional branching or fusions. The large cells of E. viridis have been widely used as a model system in physiological studies, especially involving carbon transport and potassium channels. Species distinguished based on cell size and shape, presence of wall spicules (one species) and details of chloroplast morphology. Requires revision.

Numbers of names and species: There are 10 species names in the database at present, as well as 8 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 7 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Darienko, T., Gustavs, L., Mudimu, O., Menendez, C.R., Schumann, R., Karsten, U., Friedl, T. Proschold, T. (2010). Chloroidium, a common terrestrial coccoid green alga previously assigned to Chlorella (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). European Journal of Phycology 45(1): 79-95.

Neustupa, J., Eliás, M., Skaloud, P., Nemcová, Y. & Sejnohová, L. (2011). Xylochloris irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga. Phycologia 50(1): 57-66.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 20 December 2011 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43432

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 February 2020.

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