Karlodinium J.Larsen, 2000
Holotype species: Karlodinium micrum (B.Leadbeater & J.D.Dodge) J.Larsen
Currently accepted name for the type species: Karlodinium veneficum (D.Ballantine) J.Larsen
Original publication and holotype designation: Daugbjerg, N., Hansen, G., Larsen, J. & Moestrup, Ø. (2000). Phylogeny of some of the major genera of dinoflagellates based on ultrastructure and partial LSU rDNA sequence data, including the erection of three new genera of unarmoured dinoflagellates. Phycologia 39: 302-317.
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Gender: This genus name is currently treated as neuter.
Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Benico, G., Takahashi, K., Lum, W.M. & Iwataki, M. (2019). Morphological variation, ultrastructure, pigment composition and phylogeny of the star-shaped dinoflagellate Asterodinium gracile (Kareniaceae, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 58(4): 405-418.
Gymnodiniales, Kareniaceae (Siano et al. 2009: 49). - (6 Mar 2009) - Wendy Guiry
Gymnodiniales (Luo et al. 2013: fig. 25). - (18 Feb 2014) - Wendy Guiry
Description: Unarmoured dinoflagellates with chloroplasts containing internal, lenticular pyrenoids and fucoxanthin or fucoxanthin derivatives as main accessory pigments. Amphiesma with arrays of pluglike structures in a hexagonal configuration. Apical groove straight; ventral pore present. Emended by Bergholtz et al. (2006: 192). Emended by Luo et al.(2018: 411).The most recent alteration to this page was made on 26 Aug 2019 by M.D. Guiry.
Comments: According to Bergholtz et al. (2006: 189), it is not possible to distinguish between the two taxa K. veneficum and K. micrum morphologically, and considering the very small difference in partial LSU, they conclude that the two species are conspecific. This finding leads to a name change for the type species of Karlodinium to K. veneficum, and reduces the name K. micrum to a synonym.
Numbers of names and species: There are 15 species names in the database at present, of which 14 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.
Luo, Z., Wang, L., Chan, L., Lu, S. & Gu, H. (2018). Karlodinium zhouanum, a new dinoflagellate species from China, and molecular phylogeny of Karenia digitata and Karenia longicanalis (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) . Phycologia 57(4): 401-412, 24 figs.
Bergholtz, T., Daugbjerg, N., Moestrup, O. & Fernández-Tejedor, M. (2006). On the identity of Karlodinium veneficum and description of Karlodinium armiger sp. nov. (Dinophyceae), based on light and electron microscopy, nuclear encoded LSU rDNA and pigment composition. Journal of Phycology 42(1): 170-193.
Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Created: 16 April 2003 by M.D. Guiry
Verified by: 26 August 2019 by M.D. Guiry
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=45697
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 January 2020.