161,678 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,723 images, 63,676 bibliographic items, 473,640 distributional records.

Agardhia Meneghini, 1838

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Hapalidiaceae
Subfamily Melobesioideae

Holotype species: Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus

Currently accepted name for the type species: Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) W.H.Adey & D.L.McKibbin ex Woelkering & L.M.Irvine

Original publication and holotype designation: Meneghini, G. (1838). Cenni sulla organographia e fisiologia delle alghe. Nuovi Saggi della [Cesarea] Regia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti di Padova 4: 325-388.
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Taxonomic status: currently regarded as a synonym of Phymatolithon.

Nomenclatural notes
The ICBN rules cited below are those adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (McNeill et al. 2006).

The nomenclature associated with Agardhia Meneghini is rather complicated. The generic name Agardhia Meneghini (1838: 366) is accompanied by a description and thus is validly published (ICBN Art 41.2) even though Meneghini did not describe any new species or effect any new species name combinations within the genus. Meneghini did not designate a type species, but amongst the taxa he explicitly included in his genuswas Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus, the type of Apora Gunnerus (1768) is based. This renders Agardhia Meneghini a superfluous substitute namefor Apora Gunnerus (ICBN Art 52) and thus illegitimate, as noted by Woelkerling & Irvine (1986) and Irvine & Woelkerling (1986). Moreover, Agardhia Meneghini automatically becomes typified by the type of Apora (ICBN Art 7.5) and thus the two names are homotypic (see below).

Apora Gunnerus (1768)is a validly published but formally rejected name in favour of Phymatolithon Foslie (1898), which is conserved under ICBN Art. 14 (see ICBN Appendix VII for definition of a conserved name). Phymatolithon is listed in the Nomina Generica Conservanda (ICBN Appendix III, A9), and in accordance with ICBN Art. 14.4, Phymatolithon is conserved against all other generic names based on the same type, including Apora (which is explicitly listed opposite Phymatolithon in ICBN Appendix III) and Agardhia Meneghini.

, Phymatolithon, and Agardhia Meneghini are all based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus (1767: 1285), a superfluous substitute name for Millepora calcarea Pallas (1766: 265) and thus illegitimate under ICBN Art. 52. In accordance with ICBN Art. 7.5, Millepora polymorpha is automatically typified by the type of M. calcarea, the name that ought to have been adopted under the rules. The end result is that the type of M. calcarea is also the type of M. polymorpha and thus typifies the generic names Apora, Phymatolithon,and Agardhia Meneghini.

The current correct name (see ICBN Appendix VII for definition) for M. calcarea is Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) Adey & McKibbin (1970: 100). Details are provided in Woelkerling & Irvine (1986) and Irvine & Woelkerling (1986); also see the AlgaeBase entries for Apora and Phymatolithon. - (20 Jul 2009) - M.D. Guiry

Description: A description is not provided as this name is not currently in use.

Information kindly contributed by Wm. J. Woelkerling but may now be outdated.

Comments: In addition to being a superfluous substitute name for Apora Gunnerus, Agardhia Meneghini (1838) is a later homonym of Agardhia S.F. Gray (1821) (a rejected name in favour of Mougeotia C. A. Agardh; see ICBN Appendix III A3), Agardhia A. Cabrera (1823) (a superfluous substitute name for Codium J. Stackhouse; see separate AlgaeBase entry), and Agardhia K.P.J. Sprengel (1824), a genus of flowering plants.

Seven generic names are based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus and thus are ultimately typified by the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas. Chronologically these are Apora Gunnerus (1768), Nullipora Lamarck (1801), Agardhina Nardo (1834), Agardhia Meneghini (1838), Juergensia Reichenbach (1841), Phymatolithon Foslie (1898) and Eleutherospora Heydrich (1900). Because Phymatolithon is a conserved name, it automatically takes precedence over the other six names, which must be rejected under ICBN Art. 14.4, irrespective of when they were validly published. Separate entries for each name are provided in AlgaeBase.

An account of the epitype specimen of Millepora calcarea Pallas, the correct name for Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus, is provided by Woelkerling & Irvine (1986, as Phymatolithon calcareum).

Changes in the ICBN necessitated an update (Spencer et al. 2009: 253) to the original typification (Woelkerling & Irvine 1986 58) of Millepora calcarea; the species is now lectotypified by an illustration (Ellis 1755, Tab. 27, Fig. C) cited in the protologue (Pallas 1766: 265) and epitypified by BM 000562555 (Algal Box Collection 1626) housed in the Natural History Museum , London. Further information is provided in the AlgaeBase entry for Phymatolithon.

Numbers of names and species: At present, there are no names in the database.

Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L. (1970). Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina 13: 100-106, 16 figs.

Cabrera, A. (1823). Descriptio novi generis Algarum. Physiographiska Sällskapets Årsberättelse 1823: 99 only, no figs.

Ellis, J. (1755). An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To which is added the description of a large marine polype taken near the North Pole, by the whale-fishers, in the summer 1753. pp. [i]-xvii, [10 p. cont., err.], [i]-i03, frontispiece, pl. 1-37 [+2 unnumbered], copperplate. London: Printed for the Authors;. and Sold by A. Millar, in the Strand; J. and J. Rivington, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall.

Foslie, M. (1898). Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1-7.

Gray, S.F. (1821). A natural arrangement of British plants, according to their relations to each other, as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c. including those cultivated for use; with an introduction to botany, in which the terms newly introduced are explained; illustrated by figures. pp. vol. 1: [i]-xxviii, [1]- 824, pls I-XXI plates. London: Printed for Baldwin, Cradock & Joy, Paternoster-Row.

Gunnerus, J.E. (1768). Om nogle norske Coraller [On some Norwegian corals]. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 4: 38-73, pls 1-4, 8, 10, 11, 15.

Heydrich, F. (1900). Die Lithothamnien von Helgoland. Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, N.F. 4 (Abt. Helgoland): 63-82, pl. 2.

Irvine, L.M. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1986). Proposal to conserve Phymatolithon against Apora (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae). Taxon 35: 731-733.

Lamarck, J.B. de (1801). Systeme des Animaux sans vertebres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'après la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Hist. Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées. Précédé du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République.. pp. i-viii, 1-432. Paris: Chez l'Auteur, au Muséum d'Hist[oire] Naturelle; Chez Derteville, Libraire, rue du Battoir n° 16, quartier de l'Odéon..

Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. Editio duodecima, reformata. pp. 533-1327 [1328] [+ 1-36]. Homiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Meneghini, G. (1838). Cenni sulla organographia e fisiologia delle alghe. Nuovi Saggi della [Cesarea] Regia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti di Padova 4: 325-388.

Nardo, G.D. (1834). De corallinis ac nulliporis auct. Isis von Oken 1834(1): 673-675.

Pallas, P.S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adurnbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones cum selectis auctorum synonymis. pp. [i]-xvi + [17]-451. Hagae-Comitum ['s Gravenhage; The Hague]: apud Petrum van Cleef.

Reichenbach, H.G.L. (1841). Repertorium herbarii, sive, Nomenclator generum plantarum systematicus synonymicus et alphabeticus ad usum practicum accommodatus... pp. i-xxv, 1-214, 1-240. Dresden: Arnold.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Sprengel, [K.P.J.] (1825). Caroli Linnaei, ... Systema Vegetabilium Editio decima sexta curante Curtio Sprengel. Volumen 1. Classis 1-6. pp. i-vi, 1-992. Gottingae [Göttingen]: Sumptibus Librariae Dieterichianae.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Irvine, L.M. (1986). The typification and status of Phymatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 21: 55-80, 18 figs.

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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 20 July 2009 by M.D. Guiry

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