156,364 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,021 images, 60,434 bibliographic items, 446,051 distributional records.

Kvaleya Adey & Sperapani, 1971

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Mesophyllumaceae

Holotype species: Kvaleya epilaeve Adey & Sperapani

Original publication and holotype designation: Adey, W.H. & Sperapani, C.P. (1971). The biology of Kvaleya epilaeve, a new parasitic genus and species of Corallinaceae. Phycologia 10: 29-42.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as feminine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Nomenclatural notes
The ICBN rules cited below are those adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (McNeill et al. 2006).

In accordance with ICBN Art. 13.3, the name Kvaleya is treated as pertaining to a non-fossil taxon because its type is based on a non-fossil specimen. No species based on fossil types have been assigned to the genus to date.

The generic name Kvaleya is typified (ICBN Art 10.1) by the type of K. epilaeve, the only species originally included in the genus. - (28 Aug 2009) -

Description: Plants calcified, lacking genicula, entirely pseudoparenchymatous; encrusting in growth-form; epigenous and growing attached to a species of Phymatolithon (the only known substrate; see comments); haustoria present, consisting of single cells developing from ventral surface of thallus and penetrating surface layers of host plants and occasionally penetrating host cells.

Thallus organization wholly dorsiventral; thallus construction monomerous throughout, consisting of a single system of branched laterally coherent filaments that form an irregular cushion-like mound of procumbent to ascending to upright filaments; coaxial growth (in which cells of adjacent filaments in core region are aligned in arching tiers) not recorded. Filaments terminating at thallus surface with or without epithallial cells (one per filament); outermost walls of epithallial cells rounded or flattened but not flared at the corners; cell elongation occurring mainly behind actively dividing subepithallial initials that are usually as short as or shorter than their immediate inward derivatives. Cells of adjacent filaments linked by fusions; secondary pit-connections unknown.

Gametangia and carposporangia developing in uniporate conceptacles. Spermatangia (male gametangia) and carpogonia (female gametangia) produced in separate conceptacles, presumably on different plants. Spermatangia terminal on unbranched filaments that arise from the conceptacle chamber floor but not the roof; spermatangial initials not observed; spermatangial conceptacle roof formation) occurring centripetally from groups of vegetative filaments peripheral to developing spermatangial filaments on the conceptacle chamber floor. Carpogoina terminating 2-3 celled unbranched filaments that arise from the conceptacle chamber floor. Carposporophytes developing in carpogonial conceptacles after presumed fertilization; mature carposporophytes apparently lacking a large conspicuous central fusion cell, but (Woelkerling 1988: 169; fig. 186) possibly with a small central fusion cell, and possessing several-celled filaments bearing terminal carposporangia.

Tetrasporangia formed in conceptacles on separate plants from gametangia and carposporangia. Roofs of tetrasporangial conceptacles multiporate and composed of cells. Tetrasporangia each containing four zonately arranged spores and producing an apical plug that blocks a roof pore before spore release. Bisporangia unknown.

Information contributed by: Wm. J. Woelkerling. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 14 Dec 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Characters considered diagnostic of Kvaleya: The lists below of diagnostic characters of Kvaleya, and of the higher taxa to which it belongs, are derived from data in Harvey, Broadwater, Woelkerling & Mitrovski (2003), Harvey, Woelkerling & Millar (2003), Le Gall & Saunders (2007), Woelkerling et al. (2008: 282) and/or Le Gall et al. (2009). Diagnostic characters are those that taken together distinguish a taxon from others of the same taxonomic rank (e.g., characters distinguishing Kvaleya from other genera of the Hapalidiaceae, subfamily Melobesioideae). Harvey, Woelkerling & Millar (2003: 653) also provide a diagnostic comparison of Kvaleya with other currently recognized non-fossil genera of Melobesioideae.

Characters collectively considered diagnostic of Kvaleya: Kvaleya is the only known genus of Hapalidiaceae, Subfamily Melobesioideae with: 1) a thallus that is not arborescent [i.e. composed of a basal holdfast and erect stipes bearing flexible ribbon-like branches]; 2) subepithallial initials usually as short as or shorter than their immediate inward derivatives; and 3) haustoria present.

Finding haustoria to confirm generic identification may be a difficult task in some cases as haustoria may not be abundant. The absence of pigmentation in visible portions of living specimens, however, may provide an indirect indication of generic affinity.

Characters considered diagnostic of higher taxonomic ranks known/presumed to occur in all species of Kvaleya: 1) calcification in the form of calcite; 2) pit plugs with two cap layers at cytoplasmic faces, the outer cap dome shaped; membrane absent; 3) cell walls impregnated with calcite; 4) gametangia and carposporangia produced within uniporate conceptacles; 5) tetrasporangia/bisporangia produced within conceptacles and possessing zonately arranged spores; 6) tetrasporangial/bisporangial conceptacles possessing multiporate plates or roofs; 7) tetrasporangia/bisporangia producing apical plugs; 8) tetrasporangial/bisporangial conceptacles with multiporate roofs composed of cells; lacking an acellular multiporate plate recessed below a single outer opening; and 9) cells of contiguous vegetative filaments linked exclusively by cell fusions. Characters 1-2 are considered diagnostic of the Corallinophycidae, 3-5 of the Corallinales, 6-7 of the Hapalidiaceae, and 8-9 of the Melobesioideae.

Generic synonyms: No synonyms of Kvaleya are known.

Comments: Information on the taxonomic history, nomenclature, and other matters associated with the name Kvaleya is contained in Woelkerling (1988: 167-169). Growth form terminology follows Woelkerling et al. (1993).

A detailed account of Kvaleya epilaeve,the type and only known species, is provided by Adey & Sperapani (1971), and additional information and illustrations occur in Woelkerling (1988: 167-169, figs 177-186). No subsequent detailed accounts of the species have been published.

According to Adey & Sperapani (1971: 37), living plants are white and have no visible plastids, and epithallial cells seldom occur. Kvaleya has been found only on plants identified by Adey & Sperapani (1971) as Leptophytum laeve. According to Düwel & Wegeberg (1996: 481-482), however, who compared relevant types and determined that the genus Leptophytum is a heterotypic synonym of Phymatolithon (see separate AlgaeBase accounts of these genera), Adey’s concept of Leptophytum laeve involves plants that are in full accordance with the lectotype of Phymatolithon tenue (Rosenvinge) Düwel & Wegeberg (see Düwel & Wegeberg 1996).

Biogeographically, Kvaleya is recorded (Adey & Sperapani 1971: 29) from northern Norway, Iceland, Labrador, Newfoundland, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the Gulf of Maine. According to South & Hooper (1980: 54), Kvaleya is much more widely distributed in Newfoundland than is indicated by existing collections.

Numbers of names and species: There is only one species or infraspecific name in the database at present, which has been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Adey, W.H. & Sperapani, C.P. (1971). The biology of Kvaleya epilaeve, a new parasitic genus and species of Corallinaceae. Phycologia 10: 29-42.

Düwel, L. & Wegeberg, S. (1996). The typification and status of Leptophytum (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 35: 470-483.

Harvey, A.S., Broadwater, S.T., Woelkerling, W.J. & Mitrovski, P.J. (2003). Choreonema (Corallinales, Rhodophyta): 18S rDNA phylogeny and resurrection of the Hapalidiaceae for the subfamilies Choreonematoideae, Austrolithoideae and Melobesioideae. Journal of Phycology 39: 988-998.

Harvey, A.S., Woelkerling, W.J. & Millar, A.J.K. (2009). The genus Amphiroa (Lithophylloideae, Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) from the temperate coasts of the Australian continent, including the newly described A. klochkovana. Phycologia 48: 258-290.

Le Gall, L., Payri, C.E., Bittner, C.E., & Saunders, G.W. (2010). Multigene polygenetic analyses support recognition of the Sporolithales, ord. nov. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54(1): 302-305.

Le Gall, L. & Saunders, G.W. (2007). A nuclear phylogeny of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) inferred from combined EF2, small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA: establishing the new red algal subclass Corallinophycidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1118-1130.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

South, G.R. & Hooper, R.G. (1970). A catalogue and atlas of the benthic marine algae of the island of Newfoundland. Memorial University of Newfoundland Occasional Papers in Biology 3, part 2, sect. 4: 1-136, 209 figs.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1988). The Coralline Red Algae: an analysis of the genera and subfamilies of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. pp. i-xi, 1-268, 259 figs, tables numbered by chapter. London & Oxford: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press.

Verification of data
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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 14 December 2017 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 September 2019.

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