Holotype species: Smithora naiadum (C.L.Anderson) Hollenberg
Original publication and holotype designation: Hollenberg, G.J. (1959). Smithora, an interesting new algal genus in the Erythropeltidaceae. Pacific Naturalist 1(8): 3-11.
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.
Description: One to several foliose, monostromatic blades, up to 60 mm or more in length, produced from a basal cushion of cells. Short rhizoidal protuberances emanate from cells of the basal layer in contact with the substratum. Vegetative cells with a single stellate chloroplast with central pyrenoid. Contain B-Type II phycoerythrin. Pit plugs absent and growth is diffuse. Asexual reproduction by archeospores which are abundantly produced during many months of the year. Entire vegetative cells transformed into archeosporangia with each releasing a single archeospore. At an ultrastructural level archeosporangia are characterized by an abundance of fibrous vesicles containing mucopolysaccharides. Monosporangium formation in marginal sori as a result of oblique or unequal cytokinesis was reported in the original description, but this has not been subsequently observed. Sexual reproduction has been documented, but the life history remains incompletely known. Foliose thalli are monoecious gametophytes. Spermatogenesis is initiated when vegetative cells of the monostromatic thallus divide anticlinally twice to give an associated group of four cells. Each of these cells then divides periclinally producing a distromatic region of the thallus. A subsequent, unequal periclinal division of each of these cells forms a small cell that becomes the spermatangium and a larger cell that becomes the carpogonium. At an ultrastructural level abundant fibrous vesicles appear during spermatogenesis. The carpogonium forms a short trichogyne that is the site of fertilization. The fate of the zygote and site of meiosis remain unresolved, but available evidence suggests it germinates into a diminutive, as yet unknown, life history stage.
Information contributed by: M. Hawkes. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 5 Oct 2010 by M.D. Guiry.
Comments: Growing epiphytically on the seagrasses Phyllospadix scouleri Hooker, P. torreyi Watson, and Zostera marina Linnaeus. Bidirectional transfer of radioactively labelled metabolites between Smithora and its seagrass hosts have been documented. Geographical distribution from Kodiak I., Alaska to Isla Magdalena, Baja California, Mexico. Throughout its range Smithora blades seem to reach maximum abundance in spring and summer. In the autumn and winter some populations maintain themselves as basal cushions whereas others apparently disappear.
Numbers of names and species: There are 1 species names in the database at present, of which 1 has been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
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Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=42294
Please cite this record as:
Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 15 May 2021.