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Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Bangiophyceae
Subclass Bangiophycidae
Order Bangiales
Family Bangiaceae
Genus Porphyra


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Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
Ría de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain. 15 Jul 2018. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
Ria de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
Ria de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
Ria de Ferrol, Galicia, Spain, 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
male and female, North of Portugal, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
female, North of Portugal, 2010,. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
female, North of Portugal, 2010. 09 Dec 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
male and female sectors of blade, North of Portugal, Buarcos, 2006. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
microscope male plant (spermatangia section), North of Portugal, Buarcos, 2006. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh
microscope male and female (Section), North of Portugal, Forte do Cao, 2002. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Ulothrix acrorhiza Kornmann

Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh microscope female with trichogynes, North of Portugal, Forte do Cao, 2002
© Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es)

Publication details
Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh 1824: 191

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1824). Systema algarum. pp. [i]-xxxvii, [1]-312. Lundae [Lund]: Literis Berlingianis [Berling].
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Publication date: probably September 1824

Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Porphyra.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Ulva purpurea Roth

Type information
Neotype locality: Nord-Ost Watt, Helgoland (Brodie & Irvine 1997: 769). Neotype: A. Wagner; 17 October 1996; BM (Brodie & Irvine 1997: 769). Notes: The original material, now lost, was collected at Eckwarden, Niedersachsen, Germany. BM000054930 (Sutherland et al. 2011).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), purple (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva purpurea Roth 1797
Ulva lactuca var. purpurea (Roth) Poiret 1808
Ulva umbilicalis var. purpurea (Roth) Wahlenberg 1812
Phyllona purpurea (Roth) Wallroth 1833
Porphyra umbilicalis subsp. purpurea (Roth) J.Agardh 1883
Porphyra umbilicalis f. purpurea (Roth) Jadin 1935

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva purpureoviolacea Roth 1788
Ulva purpurea var. umbilicata C.Agardh 1823
Porphyra vulgaris C.Agardh 1827
Porphyra vulgaris var. umbilicata (C.Agardh) Naccari 1828
Phyllona purpurea var. protensa Wallroth 1833
Phyllona purpurea var. umbilicata (C.Agardh) Wallroth 1833
Porphyra amethystea Kützing 1843
Porphyra vulgaris f. umbilicata (C.Agardh) P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1867
Phyllona amethystea (Kützing) Kuntze 1891
Wildemania amethystea (Kützing) De Toni 1897
Porphyra purpureoviolacea (Roth) V.Krishnamurthy 1972
Porphyra rediviva J.W.Stiller & J.R.Waaland 1996

Nomenclatural notes
The correct author citation of this species is (Roth) C.Agardh since the proposal put forward by Irvine & Brodie (1997) to conserve the illegitimate name Ulva purpurea Roth, against the legitimate Ulva purpureo-violacea Roth, was approved at the XVI International Botanical Congress (St. Louis, Missouri, 26-30 July 1999) (Barrie & Greuter, 1999).

Taxonomic notes
See Brodie et al. (1996) regarding the name and selection of a neotype. According to Guiry (1997) this species requires taxonomic reinvestigation and recommends consulting Kornmann & Sahling (1991).

Habitat notes
Intertidal zone (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 2009). - (10 May 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
High antioxidant activity (Zubia et al. 2009). - (24 Mar 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh)
English: Purple Laver (Bunker et al. 2010).

(as Porphyra vulgaris C.Agardh)
English: Laver (Kirby 1953).

Japanese: Asakusa nori, Hoshinori (Kirby 1953).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C.Agardh)
Arctic: Arctic Russia (Vinogradova 2007), Barents Sea (Malavenda 2018), White Sea (Mikhaylova 2017).

Europe: Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Brodie & Irvine 1997, Guiry 1997, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2016, Bunker et al. 2017), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Coppejans & Kling 1995, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Zubia et al. 2009, Anon. 2017), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012, Bunker et al. 2017), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Cremades et al., 2002, Araújo et al., 2003, Araújo et al. 2009), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Bárbara et al. 2005, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016).

Atlantic Islands: Faroe Islands (Mols-Mortensen et al. 2012), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972, Mols-Mortensen et al. 2012), W. Greenland (Mols-Mortensen et al. 2014).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Scagel et al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel et al. 1989), Labrador (Kucera & Saunders 2012), Maine (ME) (Mathieson et al. 2001, Klein et al. 2003, Kucera & Saunders 2012, Field et al. 2018), New Brunswick (Klein et al. 2003, Bates et al. 2005, Teasdale et al. 2009, Kucera & Saunders 2012), Newfoundland (Kucera & Saunders 2012), Nova Scotia (Klein et al. 2003, Kucera & Saunders 2012), Québec (Kucera & Saunders 2012).

South-west Asia: Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Asia: Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 2013), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Kamchatka (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 2009), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

(as Porphyra vulgaris C.Agardh)
Europe: Balearic Islands (Colmeiro, M. 1868, Barceló 1879-1881), Ireland (Drummond 1837, McMillan & Morton 1979), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971).

(as Porphyra amethystea Kützing)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931, Guiry 1997), Ireland (Adams 1908, Newton 1931, Newton 1931).

(as Porphyra purpureoviolacea (Roth) V.Krishnamurthy)
Europe: Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Helgoland (Kornmann & Sahling 1991, Guiry 1997).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Lindstrom 1977).

(as Porphyra rediviva J.W.Stiller & J.R.Waaland)
North America: California (CA) (Miller 2012), Oregon (OR) (Hansen 1997), Washington (WA) (Lindstrom & Fredericq 2003, Stiller & Waaland 1996).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Klein, A.S, Mathieson, A.C., Neefus, C.D., Cain, D.C., Taylor, H.A., Teasdale, B.W., West, A.L., Hehre, E.J., Brodie, J., Yarish, C. & Wallace, A.L. (2003). Identification of north-western Atlantic Porphyra (Bangiaceae, Bangiales) based on sequence variation in nuclear SSU and plastid rbcL genes. Phycologia 42: 109-122, 3 figs, 5 tables.

Lindstrom, S.C. & Fredericq, S. (2003). rbcL gene sequences reveal relationships among north-east Pacific species of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and a new species, P. aestivalis. Phycological Research 51(3): 211-224.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Mols-Mortensen, A., Neefus, C.D., Pedersen, P.M. & Brodie, J. (2014). Diversity and distribution of foliose Bangiales (Rhodophyta) in West Greenland: a link between the North Atlantic and North Pacific. European Journal of Phycology 49(1): 1-10.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Stiller, J.W., Perry, J., Rymarquis, L.A., Accerbi, M., Green, P.J., Prochnik, S., Lindquist, E., Chan, C.X., Yarish, C., Lin., S., Zhuang, Y., Blouin, N.A. & Brawley, S.H. (2012). Major developmental regulators and their expression in two closely related species of Porphyra (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(4): 883-896.

Teasdale, B.W., West, A., Klein, A.S. & Mathieson, A.C. (2009). Distribution and evolution of variable group-I introns in the small ribosomal subunit of North Atlantic Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 171-182, 3 figs, 5 tables.

Vinogradova K.L. (2007). The genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in the north seas of Russia. Botanicheskii Zhurnal 92(4): 532-543, 3 pls.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 28 July 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 25003 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Bray, T.L., Neefus, C.D. & Mathieson, A.C. (2007). A morphological and molecular investigation of Porphyra purpurea (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) complex in the Northwest Atlantic. Nova Hedwigia 84: 277-298.
Brodie, J. & Irvine, L.M. (1997). A comparison of Porphyra dioica sp. nov. and P. purpurea (Roth) C. Ag. (Rhodophyta: Bangiophycidae) in Europe. Cryptogamie, Algologie 18: 283-297.
Chopin, T., Morais, T., Belyea, E. & Belfry, S. (2004). Polyphosphate and siliceous granules in the macroscopic gametophytes of the red alga Porphyra purpurea (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 47: 272-280, 3 figs, 1 table.
Kraemer, G.P. & Yarish, C. (1999). A preliminary comparison of the mariculture potential of Porphyra purpurea and Porphyra umbilicalis. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 473-477.
Liu, Q.Y. & Reith, M. (1996). A sporophyte cell wall protein of the red alga Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta) is a novel member of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteases. Journal of Phycology 32: 1003-1009, 4 figs.
Liu, Q.Y., Ross, N., Lanthier, P. & Reith, M. (1996). A gametophyte cell wall protein of the red alga Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta) contains four apparent polysaccharide-binding domains. Journal of Phycology 32: 995-1003, 5 figs.
Liu, Q.Y., van der Meer, J.P. & Reith, M.E. (1994). Isolation and characterization of phase-specific complementary DNAs from sporophytes and gametophytes of Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta) using subtracted complementary DNA libraries. Journal of Phycology 30: 513-520, 3 figs, 1 table.
MacKay, R.M. & Gallant, J.W. (2002). The ß-tubulin gene of Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 38: 1020-1023.
Minocha, S.C., Hunt, M. & Mathews, D.E. (2009). Molecular characterization of four genes involved in sulfur metabolism in Porphyra purpurea (Roth) C. Agardh. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 333-345, 2 figs, 1 table.
Mitman, G.G. & van der Meer, J.P. (1994). Meiosis, blade development, and sex determination in Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 30: 147-159, 17 figs, 3 tables.
Taboada, M.C., Millán, R. & Miguez, M.I. (2013). Nutritional value of the marine algae wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and nori (Porphyra purpurea) as food supplements . J. Appl. Phycol. 25: 1271-1276.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 14 November 2019.

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