163,364 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,769 images, 62,945 bibliographic items, 480,216 distributional records.

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller 1778

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

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Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller
recolectada en la zona Sur del Macizo Guamuhaya. Foto: Ángel Moreira..

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 28 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller
© ABC Taxa (eric.coppejans@ugent.be).

 

Lenormandia muelleri Sonder

Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller Peter the Great Bay, Russia
© Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru)

Publication details
Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller 1778: 7, pl. DCCLXIII [763]: fig. 1

Published in: Müller, O.F. (1778). Flroa danica. Vol. 5, fasc. 13 pp. 8, Plates 721-780. Havniae [Copenhagen].

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Type information
Type locality: "U. p. tubulosa simplex teres, adultior compressiuscula. In fossa ad Nebbelund Lalandiae" [Lolland, Denmark] Lectotype: Müller, 1778: pl. 763, fig. 1: Thallus of D11 strain cultured by Hiraoka fro zoid produced by the thallus originally collected by Takano at the southern coast of Nebbelunde (54°38.933'N, 11°21.583'E) in Lolland Island, Denmark, 14 August 2010, HHIRAOKA001 deposited in Herb. of Kochi Un (epitype) (Cui et al. 2018 Notes: Isoepitypes: HIRAOKA002-004 deposited in Usa Marine Biological Institute, Kochi University. Womersley (1984; 156, 157) reports that the type is from Lolland, Denmark and that it has been lost. Lolland Island, Denmark (O'Kelly et al. 2010).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), producing offsets, bearing progeny as offshoots (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva enteromorpha f. prolifera (O.F.Müller) Van Heurck
Ulva compressa var. prolifera (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh 1823
Enteromorpha compressa var. prolifera (O.F.Müller) Greville 1830
Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F.Müller) J.Agardh 1883

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Ulva prolifera f. simplex (K.L.Vinogradova) K.L.Vinogradova
Enteromorpha salina Kützing 1845
Enteromorpha salina var. polyclados Kützing 1845
Enteromorpha compressa var. trichodes Kützing 1845
Enteromorpha polyclados (Kützing) Kützing 1856
Enteromorpha procera K.Ahlner 1877
Enteromorpha prolifera f. simplex K.L.Vinogradova 1974
Enteromorpha simplex (K.L.Vinogradova) R.P.T.Koeman & Hoek 1982
Ulva procera (K.Ahlner) H.S.Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, P.C.Silva, Stanhope & Waaland 2003
Ulva simplex (K.L.Vinogradova) H.S.Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, P.C.Silva, Stanhope & Waaland 2003

Taxonomic notes
John et al. (2004) cite Enteromorpha torta (Mert.) Reinb. as a synonym of this species.

Partial gamete incompatibility with Ulva linza (Cui et al., 2018). - (18 Jan 2019) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
Results of studies carried out by O'Kelly et al. (2010) suggest that Ulva populations in tropical and subtropical regions consist of species that are largely unique to these areas, for which the application of names based on types from temperate and boreal European and North American waters is inappropriate. - (1 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Usually in marine and brackish waters. However, it has been reported from freshwater pools and salt marshes, as well. Molecular data indicates that freshwater samples are genetically distinct from the marine/brackish polulations (Shimada et al. 2008). - (15 Mar 2018) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Enteromorpha procera K.Ahlner)
Swedish: Fingrenig tarmalg (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

(as Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F.Müller) J.Agardh)
Chinese: Tai-tiao (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).

Hawaiian: Limu 'Ele'ele, Hulu'ilio (Abbott 1984).

Japanese: Suji-awnori (Tokida 1954), Suji-aonori (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).

Swedish: Spretig tarmalg (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ulva prolifera f. simplex (K.L.Vinogradova) K.L.Vinogradova)
Asia: Commander Islands (Klochkova & al. 2020).

(as Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller)
Arctic: Barents Sea (Malavenda 2018), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Fredriksen & Kile 2012, Hop et al. 2012 , Fredriksen et al. 2014, Fredriksen & al. 2019), White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013, Garbary & Tarakhovskaya 2013).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Parente, Neto & al. 2020), Canary Islands (John & al. 2004, Moro & al. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Madeira (John & al. 2004, Ferreira & al. 2018).

Europe: Apulia (Bottalico & al. 2016), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Black Sea (Milchakova 2011), Britain (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Brodie & al. 2007, Brodie & al. 2015), Bulgaria (Berov & al. 2012), Crimea (Sadogurskiy, Belich & Sadogurskaya 2019), Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), France (Anon. 2017), Georgia (Barinova & al. 2011), Germany (Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016, Stutz & Mattern (eds) & al. 2018, Steinhagen et al., Täuscher 2019), Greece (Christia et al. 2011, Tsiamis & al. , Tsioli et al. 2021), Ireland (Guiry 2012), Poland (Michalak 2020 ), Portugal (Araújo & al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Slovenia (Rindi & Battelli 2005), Spain (Gorostiaga & al., 2004, Bárbara & al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Ukraine (Burova & al. 2011), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Alaska (Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), Baffin Island (Küpper et al. 2016), California (Hayden & Waaland 2004, Miller 2012), Florida (Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Maine (Saunders & Kucera 2010, Field et al. 2018), Manitoba (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Mexico (Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), New Brunswick (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Newfoundland (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Oregon (Kraft, Kraft & Waller), Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al. 2018), Texas (Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013), Washington (Hayden & Waaland 2004).

Central America: Costa Rica (Fernández-García & al. 2011), El Salvador (Fernández-García & al. 2011), Guatemala (Fernández-García & al. 2011), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005), Panama (Fernández-García & al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Suárez 2005, Gonzáles & al. 2014, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke & al. 2018), Martinique (Delnatte & Wynne 2016).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Croce & al. 2015), Brazil (Coto & Pupo 2009, Moura 2010), Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2013), Peru (Ávila-Peltroche & Padilla-Vallejos 2020).

Africa: Algeria (Ould-Ahmed & al. 2019), Equatorial Guinea (John & al. 2004 ), Ghana (John & al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Mauritania (John & al. 2004), Morocco (Moussa & al. 2018), Namibia (John & al. 2004), Senegal (John & al. 2004, John & al. 2004), Western Sahara (John & al. 2004).

Middle East: Egypt (Shabaka 2018), Iran (Kokabi & Yousefzadi 2015), Israel (Hoffman 2004), Kuwait (Al-Yamani & al. 2014), Red Sea (Einav & al. 2021), Turkey (Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019, Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), India (Rao & Gupta 2015), Karnataka (Yadav & Palanisamy 2020), Sri Lanka (Coppejans & al. 2009).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Philippines (Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Asia: China (Titlyanov et al. 2011, Liu et al. 2012, Kang et al. 2014 , Guo et al. 2017, Wu et al. 2018, Xie et al. 2020 ), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov & al. 2015, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Commander Islands (Klochkova & al. 2020), Japan (Ogawa et al. 2013, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015, Cui et al. 2018, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Korea (Bae 2010), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014), Tajikistan (Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018), Yellow Sea (Cui et al. 2019).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Heesch et al. 2009, Broady & al. 2012).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: American Samoa (Skelton & al. 2004), Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014).

(as Enteromorpha compressa var. prolifera (O.F.Müller) Greville)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha salina Kützing)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960).

Europe: Germany (Mauch & Schmedtje 2003).

North America: Florida (Taylor 1928, Taylor 1960), Louisiana (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Asia: China (Li & Bi 1998), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987).

(as Enteromorpha salina var. polyclados Kützing)
North America: Florida (Taylor 1928, Dawes 1974).

South America: Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945, Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2013).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013).

(as Enteromorpha compressa var. trichodes Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013).

(as Enteromorpha polyclados (Kützing) Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha procera K.Ahlner)
Atlantic Islands: Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001).

Europe: Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999).

Asia: Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 1997), Kamchatka (Klochkova & al. 2009), Russia (Far East) (Selivanova 2002).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Silva & al. 1996), Queensland (Bostock & Holland 2010).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003).

(as Enteromorpha prolifera (O.F.Müller) J.Agardh)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen & al. 1999).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Moro & al. 2011), E. Greenland (Lund 1959, Pedersen 1976), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, Haroun & al. 2002), Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Gallardo & al. 1993), Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Gallardo & al. 1993), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Black Sea (Gallardo & al. 1993), Britain (Newton 1931, Burrows 1991, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Whitton & al. 2003, Wilkinson & al. 2007), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Gallardo & al. 1993), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Gallardo & al. 1993, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Mauch & Schmedtje 2003), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo & al. 1993), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Cotton 1912, Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra & al. 1979, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994), Italy (Edwards et al. 1975, Gallardo & al. 1993, Gallardo & al. 1993, Cecere & al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga & al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007, Veen & al. 2015), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Miranda 1931, Miranda 1934, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Gallardo & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Ballesteros 1983, Gallardo & al. 1985, Alvárez Cobelas & Gallardo 1986, Soto & Conde 1989, Pérez-Ruzafa 1990, Conde, Flores-Moya & Vera 1990, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Barbara, Cremades & López Rodriguez 1992, Gallardo & al. 1993, Flores-Moya et al. 1994, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto et al. 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Calvo & Bárbara 2002, Peña & Bárbara 2002), Spitsbergen (Vinogradova 1995), Sweden (Kylin 1949).

North America: Alaska (Saunders 1901, Lindstrom 1977, Scagel & al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel & al. 1989), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979), Connecticut (Schneider et al. 1979), Florida (Taylor 1928, Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Gulf of California (Setchell & Gardner 1924, Dawson 1944), Maine (Mathieson & al. 2001), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), North Carolina (Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Québec (Taylor 1957), South Carolina (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Texas (Taylor 1960), Virginia (Humm 1979), Washington (Scagel & al. 1989).

Central America: Panama (Wysor 2004).

Caribbean Islands: Barbados (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985, Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011), Brazil (Taylor 1931, Taylor 1960, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Howe 1931, Coll & Oliveira 1999), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Equatorial Guinea (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Mauritius (Silva & al. 1996), Morocco (Gallardo & al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Mozambique (Silva & al. 1996), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva & al. 1996), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Gallardo & al. 1993).

Indian Ocean Islands: Laccadive Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Maldives (Silva & al. 1996), Réunion (Silva & al. 1996).

Middle East: Egypt (Aleem 1993), Iraq (Silva & al. 1996, Maulood & al. 2013, Al-Saboonchi & Al-Shawi 2016), Israel (Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva & al. 1996), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Gallardo & al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Silva & al. 1996, Ahmed & al. 2008), India (Silva & al. 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012), Khandesh (Jaiswal 2017), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Levant states (Gallardo & al. 1993), Pakistan (Silva & al. 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva & al. 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Vietnam (Tsutsui et al. 2005, Tien 2007).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Li & Bi 1998, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009, Wang 2012, Ding & Luan 2013), Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 1997), Japan (Okamura 1936, Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Hiraoka 2003), Kamchatka (Klochkova & al. 2009), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Lee et al. 2011), Kuril Islands (Nagai 1940), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Nelson & Phillips 1996), Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Tasmania (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Womersley 1984).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013, Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (Pari & N'Yeurt 1999), Hawaiian Islands (Abbott & Huisman, 2004), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

(as Enteromorpha simplex (K.L.Vinogradova) R.P.T.Koeman & Hoek)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Faroe Islands (Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Dizerbo & Herpe 2007), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Netherlands (Stegenga & al. 1997), Portugal (Araújo & al., 2003), Spain (Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Peña & Bárbara 2002).

Africa: Morocco (Gallardo & al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001).

(as Ulva procera (K.Ahlner) H.S.Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, P.C.Silva, Stanhope & Waaland)
Atlantic Islands: Madeira (John & al. 2004).

Europe: Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), Finland (Hayden & Waaland 2004), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Ukraine (Burova & al. 2011).

North America: British Columbia (Saunders & Kucera 2010), Maine (Saunders & Kucera 2010), New Brunswick (Saunders & Kucera 2010).

Africa: Ghana (John & al. 2004).

Middle East: Turkey (Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & al. 2008 ).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014).

Asia: Commander Islands (Klochkova & al. 2020), Japan (Hayden & Waaland 2004), Kamchatka (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 2009).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Heesch et al. 2009, Broady & al. 2012), Tasmania (Kirkendale & al. 2013), Victoria (Kirkendale & al. 2013).

(as Ulva simplex (K.L.Vinogradova) H.S.Hayden, Blomster, Maggs, P.C.Silva, Stanhope & Waaland)
Europe: Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), France (Anon. 2017), Portugal (Araújo & al. 2009), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Spain (Bárbara & al. 2005), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Ukraine (Burova & al. 2011).

North America: Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al. 2018).

Asia: China (Xie et al. 2020 ), Japan (Ogawa et al. 2013 ), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014).

Key references
Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Coto, A.C.S.P. & Pupo, D. (2009). Flora ficológica do Estado de São Paulo. Vol. 3. Ulvophyceae. pp. [i]-x, [1]-76, 94 figs. São Carlos: RiMa Editora.

Cui, J., Monotilla, A.P., Zhu, W., Takano, Y., Shimada, S., Ichihara, K., Matsui, T., He, P., & Hiraoka, M. (2018). Taxonomic reassessment of Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on specimens from the type locality and Yellow Sea green tides. Phycologia 57(6): 692-704.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Hayden, H.S. & Waaland, J.R. (2004). A molecular systematic study of Ulva (Ulvaceae, Ulvales) from the northeast Pacific. Phycologia 43: 364-382.

Heesch, S., Broom, J.E.S., Neill, K.F., Farr, T.J., Dalen, J.L. & Nelson, W.A. (2009). Ulva, Umbraulva and Gemina: genetic survey of New Zealand taxa reveals diversity and introduced species. European Journal of Phycology 44(2): 143-154, 2 figs, 4 tables.

Kirkendale, L., Saunders, G.W. & Winberg, P. (2013). A molecular survey of Ulva (Chlorophyta) in temperate Australia reveals enhanced levels of cosmopolitanism. Journal of Phycology 49(1): 69-81.

Leliaert F., Zhang X., Ye N., Malta E.J., Engelen A.E., Mineur F., Verbruggen H. & De Clerck O. (2009). Identity of the Qingdao algal bloom. Phycological Research 57: 147-151.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 2 Brunalger (Phaeophyceae) og Grønalger (Chlorophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 8: [1]-476, col. figs and distributional maps.

Ogawa, T., Ohki, K. & Kamiya, M. (2013). Differences of spatial distribution and seasonal succession among Ulva species (Ulvophyceae) across salinity gradients. Phycolgia 52(6): 637-651.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Zhigadlova, G.G. & Lopatina, N.A. (2020). [Green algae Chlorophyta algae]. In: Flora and Fauna of Matua Island (middle Kuril Islands): the field guide. Volume 1. Sea. (Sanamyan, K.E. &Sanamyan, N.P. Eds), pp. 468-485. Cherepovets: Intron. [in Russian]

Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Created: 27 October 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 08 December 2020 by M.D. Guiry

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Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)



Cui, J., Monotilla, A.P., Zhu, W., Takano, Y., Shimada, S., Ichihara, K., Matsui, T., He, P., & Hiraoka, M. (2018). Taxonomic reassessment of Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on specimens from the type locality and Yellow Sea green tides. Phycologia 57(6): 692-704.
Gao, S., Zheng, Z., Wang, J. & Wang, G. (2020). Slow zeaxanthin accumulation and the enhancement of CP26 collectively contribute to an atypical non-photochemical quenching in macroalga Ulva prolifera under high light. Journal of Phycology 56(2): 393-403.
Guo, Y., Wang, H.Z., Wu, C.H., Fu, H.H. & Jiang, P. (2017). Cloning and characterization of nitrate reductase gene in Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(5): 1035-1043.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 September 2021.

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