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Ulva paradoxa C.Agardh 1817

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

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Ulva paradoxa C.Agardh
recolectada en la zona Sur del Macizo Guamuhaya. Hábito. Foto: Ángel Moreira..

Ulva paradoxa C.Agardh
Hawaii. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

 

Rytiphlaea capensis Kützing

Ulva paradoxa C.Agardh Hawaii
© J.M. Huisman

Publication details
Ulva paradoxa C.Agardh 1817: xxii

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1817). Synopsis algarum Scandinaviae, adjecta dispositione universali algarum. pp. [i]-xl, [1]-135. Lundae [Lund]: Ex officina Berlingiana.
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Publication date: Mai-Dec 1817 (p. vii: i Mai 1817)

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Type information
Type locality: Bangor, Wales (Berger & al. 2003: 290). Lectotype: LD 13702 (Berger & al. 2003: 290). Notes: For an illustration of the type, see Bliding (1960: fig. 43 a-d). Effectively typified by the type of Conferva paradoxa Dillwyn (1809: 70, suppl. pl. F), an illegitimate name. Type locality: Bangor, Wales/ Brighton, England (O'Kelly et al. 2010).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), paradoxical.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Enteromorpha flexuosa subsp. paradoxa (C.Agardh) Bliding 1963
Ulva flexuosa subsp. paradoxa (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne 2005

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Enteromorpha paradoxa var. typica Batters
Scytosiphon erectus Lyngbye 1819
Enteromorpha clathrata var. erecta (Lyngbye) Greville 1830
Enteromorpha erecta (Lyngbye) Carmichael 1833
Ulva erecta (Lyngbye) Fries 1835
Enteromorpha plumosa Kützing 1843
Enteromorpha hopkirkii M'Calla ex Harvey 1849
Ulva hopkirkii (M'Calla ex Harvey) P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1867
Enteromorpha pulcherrima Holmes & Batters 1890

Distributional notes
Results of studies carried out by O'Kelly et al. (2010) suggest that Ulva populations in tropical and subtropical regions consist of species that are largely unique to these areas, for which the application of names based on types from temperate and boreal European and North American waters is inappropriate. - (1 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Enteromorpha plumosa Kützing)
Japanese: Watage-awonori (Tokida 1954).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Ulva paradoxa C.Agardh)
Europe: Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Mexico (Pedroche & Sentíes 2020).

Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005), Panama (Fernández-García & al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Suárez 2005).

South America: Brazil (Coto & Pupo 2009).

Africa: Madagascar (Vieira & al. 2021).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: New Caledonia (Payri 2007).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. erecta (Lyngbye) Greville)
Middle East: Israel (Papenfuss 1968).

(as Enteromorpha erecta (Lyngbye) Carmichael)
Europe: France (Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954).

North America: New Brunswick (Taylor 1957), New York (Taylor 1957), North Carolina (Taylor 1960), Québec (Taylor 1957), Virginia (Humm 1979).

Caribbean Islands: Barbados (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Taylor 1939), Brazil (Taylor 1931, Taylor 1960, Oliveira Filho 1977).

(as Enteromorpha plumosa Kützing)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957).

Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Ercegovic 1980), Sweden (Kylin 1907).

North America: Connecticut (Schneider et al. 1979), Florida (Taylor 1928, Taylor 1957), Maine (Taylor 1957), New Jersey (Taylor 1957), Nova Scotia (Taylor 1957), Texas (Taylor 1960), Virginia (Humm 1979).

Central America: El Salvador (Fernández-García & al. 2011), Islas Revillagigedo (Setchell & Gardner 1930).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Barbados (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1969), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Middle East: Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

South-east Asia: Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Kuril Islands (Nagai 1940).

(as Enteromorpha hopkirkii M'Calla ex Harvey)
Europe: France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954).

(as Enteromorpha flexuosa subsp. paradoxa (C.Agardh) Bliding)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Lee 1980).

Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Schneider 2003), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Gallardo & al. 1993), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Black Sea (Gallardo & al. 1993), France (Gallardo & al. 1993, Anon. 2017), Greece (Gallardo & al. 1993), Italy (Gallardo & al. 1993, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Gallardo & al. 1985, Gallardo & al. 1993).

North America: Connecticut (Schneider et al. 1979), Florida (Schneider & Searles 1991), Maine (Mathieson & al. 2001), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991).

Central America: Panama (Wysor & Kooistra 2003).

Caribbean Islands: Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000).

South America: Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Madagascar (Silva & al. 1996), Mauritius (Silva & al. 1996), Morocco (Gallardo & al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001).

Indian Ocean Islands: Rodrigues Island (De Clerck & al. 2004).

South-west Asia: India (Silva & al. 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Ghosh & Prakash Kershi 2010, Gupta 2012), Levant states (Gallardo & al. 1993).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva & al. 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Singapore (Silva & al. 1996), Thailand (Silva & al. 1996).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2000), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans & al. 2001), Queensland (Phillips 1997), Western Australia (Huisman & Borowitzka 2003).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

Subantarctic Islands: Diego Garcia Atoll (Silva & al. 1996).

(as Ulva flexuosa subsp. paradoxa (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne)
Atlantic Islands: Madeira (Ferreira & al. 2018).

Europe: Bulgaria (Temniskova, Stoyneva & Kirjakov 2008), Czech Republic (Mares et al. 2011), Finland (Mares et al. 2011), France (Anon. 2017), Greece (Tsiamis & al. ), Hungary (Mares et al. 2011), Norway (Mares et al. 2011), Romania (Mares et al. 2011), Sweden (Mares et al. 2011).

North America: Gulf of California (Norris, Aguilar-Rosas & Pedroche 2017), Mexico (Atlantic) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017, Nava-Olvera & al. 2017), Texas (Wynne 2009).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Gonzáles & al. 2014, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke et al. 2011, Fricke & al. 2018), Martinique (Delnatte & Wynne 2016).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Moura 2010, Araujo dos Santos & Do Nascimento Moura 2011), Venezuela (García-Soto & al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Philippines (Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Pham & al. 2011).

Asia: South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2007), Queensland (Bostock & Holland 2010), Western Australia (Kraft 2007, Kraft, Kraft & Waller).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014).

Key references
Coto, A.C.S.P. & Pupo, D. (2009). Flora ficológica do Estado de São Paulo. Vol. 3. Ulvophyceae. pp. [i]-x, [1]-76, 94 figs. São Carlos: RiMa Editora.

Hayden, H.S., Blomster, J., Maggs, C.A., Silva, P.C., Stanhope, M.J. & Waaland, J.R. (2003). Linnaeus was right all along: Ulva and Enteromorpha are not distinct genera. European Journal of Phycology 38(3): 277-294, 4 figs, 5 tables.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 2 Brunalger (Phaeophyceae) og Grønalger (Chlorophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 8: [1]-476, col. figs and distributional maps.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Škaloud, P., Rindi, F., Boedeker, C. & Leliaert, F. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater flora of central Europe. Bd 13. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae (Krienitz, L. ed.). pp. [i]-vii, [1]-288, 182 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Created: 24 November 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 October 2020 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 September 2021.

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