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Rhizoclonium implexum (Dillwyn) Kützing

Publication details
Rhizoclonium implexum (Dillwyn) Kützing 1845: 206

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1845). Phycologia germanica, d. i. Deutschlands Algen in bündigen Beschreibungen. Nebst einer Anleitung zum Untersuchen und Bestimmen dieser Gewächse für Anfänger. pp. [i]-x, [1]-340 ['240']. Nordhausen: zu finden bei Wilh. Köhne.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Rhizoclonium is Rhizoclonium juergensii (Mertens) Kützing.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth) Harvey

Basionym
Conferva implexa Dillwyn

Type information
Type locality: Bantry, Ireland (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 786). Type: Miss Ellen Hutchins; BM-K (Yoshida, 1998)

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), entangled, entwined, interwoven, interlaced (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Rhizoclonium riparium var. implexum (Dillwyn) Rosenvinge 1893

Taxonomic notes
According to Burrows (1991) this species is a synonym of Rhizoclonium tortuosum (Dillwyn) Kützing.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Rhizoclonium implexum (Dillwyn) Kützing)
Arctic: Barents Sea (Malavenda 2018), White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013).

Europe: Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Faroe Islands (Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Anon. 2017), Ireland (Adams 1908, Cotton 1912, Cullinane 1969, Cullinane 1971), Netherlands (Stegenga & al. 1997), Norway (Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Araújo & al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2002), Ukraine (Burova & al. 2011), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Lindstrom 1977, Scagel & al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel & al. 1989), California (CA) (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Scagel & al. 1989), Oregon (OR) (Hansen 1997), Washington (WA) (Scagel & al. 1989).

South America: Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2011).

Africa: Benin (Lawson & John 1987), Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987), Gambia (Lawson & John 1987), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Nigeria (Lawson & John 1987), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987), South Africa (Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997).

Middle East: Oman (Wynne 2018).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008, Ding & Luan 2013), Japan (Yoshida 1998, Titlyanov et al 2006), Russia (Far East) (Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov & al. 2016).

Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Broady & al. 2012), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Day & al. 1995, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984), Victoria (Womersley 1984).

Pacific Islands: Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Abbott & Huisman, 2004), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957).

(as Rhizoclonium riparium var. implexum (Dillwyn) Rosenvinge)
Europe: France (Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Romania (Caraus 2002).

North America: Alaska (AK) (Saunders 1901), California (CA) (Miller 2012), Labrador (Taylor 1957), New Jersey (NJ) (Taylor 1957).

Central America: Baja California (Norris 2010), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005).

South America: Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945).

Africa: Benin (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Cameroon (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Gambia (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Ghana (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritius (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Nigeria (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), São Tomé & Príncipe (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Sierra Leone (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), South Africa (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Indian Ocean Islands: Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

Middle East: Bahrain (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Egypt (Shabaka 2018), Kuwait (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Oman (Wynne & Jupp 1998), Saudi Arabia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Bangladesh (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Ahmed & al. 2008), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Gupta 2012), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-east Asia: Philippines (Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013).

Asia: China (Titlyanov et al. 2011), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov & al. 2015), Japan (Titlyanov & al. 2019), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016).

Pacific Islands: American Samoa (Skelton & al. 2004), Fiji (South & Skelton 2003), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

Key references
Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Ding, L. & Luan, R. (2013). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus IV Chlorophyta No. I Ulotrichales Chaetophorales, Phaeophilales, Ulvales, Acrosiphoniales. pp. [i]-xxi, 1-173, pls I-VI. Beijing: Science Press.

Scagel, R.F. (1957). An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). Bulletin, National Museum of Canada 150: [i]-vi, 1-289.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Smith, G.M. (1944). Marine algae of the Monterey Peninsula. pp. i-ix, 1-622, 98 pls. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Vinogradova, K.L. (1979). Opredelitel' vodoroslej dal'nevostochnykh morej SSSR. Selenye vodorosli [Determination book of the algae of the far-eastern seas of the USSR. Green algae]. pp. 1-148, 67 figs, pls I-XVIII. Leningrad: Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Botanicheskij Institut im. V.L. Komarova.

Wynne, M.J. (2005). A check-list of benthic marine algae of the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic: second revision. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 129: 1-152.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk. [in Russian]

Created: 01 December 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 23 July 2015 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 2101 times since it was created.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 February 2020.

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