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Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh 1824

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Bangiophyceae
Subclass Bangiophycidae
Order Bangiales
Family Bangiaceae
Genus Bangia

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
In tufa deposits, Caher River, Fanore, Ireland. Collected by Melinda Lyons.. 04 Jun 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
In tufa deposits, Caher River, Fanore, Ireland. Collected by Melinda Lyons.. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Young filament at three focus points. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, on a lock gate, October 2009. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Transverse section. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, UK. On a lock gate.. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Wedge-shaped cell (arrowed) at three focus points. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, UK. On a lock gate.. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Attachment structure. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, UK. On a lock gate.. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Older filament with stacked stellate chloroplasts. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, UK. On a lock gate.. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Growing on Cladophora. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, UK. On a lock gate.. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
Newly growing filament. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, UK. On a lock gate.. 23 Oct 2009. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh
River Corrib, Galway, Ireland. 14 Jun 2011. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

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Cladophoropsis brachyartra (Svedelius) Wille

Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh Young filament at three focus points. Oxford Canal, near Claydon, on a lock gate, October 2009
© C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh 1824: 76

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1824). Systema algarum. pp. [i]-xxxvii, [1]-312. Lundae [Lund]: Literis Berlingianis [Berling].
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Publication date: probably September 1824

Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Bangia.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Conferva atropurpurea Mertens ex Roth

Type information
Type locality: Ad rotas molendinas Bremae in Visurgi primo ob. Julio 1801 Mertens, qui sub nomine Confervae castaneae comm. [Watermill on the Weser River, Bremen first observed in July 1801 by Mertens who communicated it under the name Conferva castanea] (Roth 1806: 208). Neotype: BM 000637980 (Müller et al. 2003: 216). Notes: Lectotype: Collected by Mertens from the Weser River at Bremen: lectotypified by Pfeiffer (1871-1873: 361) (Sutherland et al 2011). Neotype designated by Müller et al (2003: 216): Ysselmeer, Netherlands; coll. K. Müller & A. Sherwood, 24 May 1998; BM accession Number BM000637980. Roth's collection is believed to have been destroyed in World War II (Koster 1957 cited by Müller et al. 2003; Koster 1969 cited by Womersley 1994). [INA: England: Hampshire: near Southampton (Mr Woods); Wales: Camarthenshire: near Pontardylais. Collector: Mertens (vii 1801)].

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), black-purple (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Conferva atropurpurea Mertens ex Roth 1806
Oscillatoria atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh 1817
Bangia fuscopurpurea var. atropurpurea (Roth) Lyngbye 1819
Girardia fuscopurpurea var. atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) S.F.Gray 1821
Bangiella atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) Gaillon 1833
Diadenus atropurpureus (Mertens ex Roth) Kuntze 1891
Bangiadulcis atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) W.A.Nelson 2007

Taxonomic notes
Based on molecular data, as well as chromosome number and morphology, Müller et al. (2003: 217) propose that B. atropurpurea should be re-recognized as a distinct species, separate from Bangia populations found in the marine environment. They suggest that marine populations should continue to be recognized as B. fuscopurpurea until their complex relationships can be resolved. - (18 May 2009) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Common names

(as Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh)
Swedish: Purpurtråd (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Description
Gelatinous, unbranched, blackish-purple filaments, at first uniseriate later multiseriate, attached by rhizoidal outgrowths from basal and adjacent cells. Cells with central star-shaped chloroplast with pyrenoid.

Habitat
On rock, wood, etc., as fleecy mat, especially at high tide level on exposed coasts in autumn and winter, disappearing in spring or early summer, at other times present as sparse filaments in shade at all levels and subtidally. Widely distributed, seasonally abundant.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Conferva atropurpurea Mertens ex Roth)
Europe: Netherlands (Müller et al. 2003).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Bangia fuscopurpurea var. atropurpurea (Roth) Lyngbye)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Bangia atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) C.Agardh)
Arctic: Barents Sea (Malavenda 2018).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 2005), Canary Islands (John, Price, Maggs & Lawson 1979, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John & al. 2004, Moro & al. 2011), Greenland (Boekeker & Karsten 2005), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John & al. 2004).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978), Albania (Kashta & Miho 2016), Balearic Islands (Cremades 1989), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Britain (Guiry 1997, Sheath & Sherwood 2002, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Whitton & al. 2003, John, Whitton & Brook 2011), Croatia (Koletic & al. 2020), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Mauch & Schmedtje 2003, Boekeker & Karsten 2005, Täuscher 2011, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016, Stutz & Mattern (eds) & al. 2018, Täuscher 2020), Greece (Athanasiadis 1987, Boekeker & Karsten 2005), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Hungary (Németh 2005), Ireland (Adams 1908, Sheath & Sherwood 2002), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Furnari & al. 2003, Furnari & al. 2003, Furnari & al. 2003, Furnari & al. 2003), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga & al. 1997, Veen & al. 2015), Norway (Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Romania (Caraus 2017), Sardinia (Furnari & al. 2003), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Slovenia (Vrhovsek & al. 2006), Spain (Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Pérez-Cirera & Maldonado 1982, Alvárez Cobelas 1984, Gallardo & al. 1985, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Soto & Conde 1989, Sabater, Aboal & Cambra 1989, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Conde & al. 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto et al. 1997, Cremades, Bárbara, Granja & Veiga 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Gorostiaga & al., 2004, Bárbara & al. 2005, Bárbara & al. 2005, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Sweden (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

North America: Connecticut (Schneider et al. 1979), Florida (Schneider & Searles 1991), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Maine (Mathieson & al. 2001 ), Mexico (Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), Mexico (Atlantic) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017, García & al. 2020), New Brunswick (Bates & al. 2005), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991, Boekeker & Karsten 2005), Nova Scotia (Scrosati 2016), Oregon (Hansen 1997), South Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991).

South America: Argentina (Pujals 1963, Tell 1985, Boraso de Zaixso 2013), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997), Colombia (Díaz-Pulido & Díaz-Ruíz 2003), Peru (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Coll & Oliveira 1999).

Africa: Benin (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Morocco (Gil-Rodriguez & Socorro Hernández 1986, Moussa & al. 2018), Nigeria (John, Price, Maggs & Lawson 1979, Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John & al. 2004), Senegal (John & al. 2004), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tunisia (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987).

Middle East: Cyprus (Taskin & al. 2013), Egypt (Aleem 1993), Iraq (Maulood & al. 2013), Israel (Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva & al. 1996, Al-Yamani & al. 2014), Turkey (Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Aysel 2005, Taskin & al. 2008, Taskin & al. 2008, Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: India (Silva & al. 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Pakistan (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014, Lastimoso & Santiañez 2021), Vietnam (Abbott, Fisher & McDermid 2002).

Asia: China (Hu & Wei 2006, Shi, Xie & Hua 2006), Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 1997, Klochkova & al. 2021), Japan (Hirose, Yamagishi & Akiyama 1977, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014), Tajikistan (Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Silva & al. 1996), New South Wales (Womersley 1994), New Zealand (Nelson & Phillips 1996), Queensland (Lewis 1984, Womersley 1994 , Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1994, Boekeker & Karsten 2005), Tasmania (Womersley 1994), Victoria (Womersley 1994), Western Australia (Womersley 1994).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Ramírez & Müller 1991), Hawaiian Islands (Abbott 1999), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012).

Subantarctic Islands: Île Saint-Paul (St Paul I.) (Silva & al. 1996), South Shetland Islands (Wiencke & Clayton 2002).

Antarctic and Antarctic islands: Ant./Subantarctic and islands (Wiencke & Clayton 2002), King George Island (Wiencke & Clayton 2002, Boekeker & Karsten 2005).

(as Bangiadulcis atropurpurea (Mertens ex Roth) W.A.Nelson)
Atlantic Islands: Azores (Parente).

Europe: Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Bulgaria (Berov & al. 2012), France (Anon. 2017), Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015).

Key references
Abbott, I.A., Fisher, J. & McDermid, K.J. (2002). Newly reported and revised marine algae from the vicinity of Nha Trang, Vietnam. In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds with reference to some Pacific species. Vol. VIII. (Abbott, I.A. & Mcdermid, K.J. Eds) Vol. 8, pp. 291-321. Oceanographic Institute, Nha Trang, Vietnam: California Sea Grant College.

Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Bates, C.R., Saunders, G.W. & Chopin, T. (2005). An assessment of two taxonomic distinctness indices for detecting seaweed assemblage responses to environmental stress. Botanica Marina 48: 231-243.

Boedeker, C. & Karsten, U. (2005). The occurrence of mycosporine-like amino acids in the gametophytic and sporophytic stages of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 44: 403-408.

Brodie, J. & Irvine, L.M. (2003). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 3B. Bangiophycidae. pp. i-xiii, 1-167, map. Andover: Intercept.

Eloranta, P., Kwandrans, J. & Kusel-Fetzmann, E. (2011). Rhodophyceae and Phaeophyceae. In: Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa Band 7. Freshwater flora of Central Europe. Volume 7. (Schagerl, M. Eds), pp. [i]-x, [1]-155. Heidelberg: Spectrum Akademischer Verlag.

Ghoshrov, S. & Robertson, D.L. (2012). Molecular evolution of glutamine synthetase II and III in the chromalveolates. Journal of Phycology 48(3): 768-783.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Müller, K.M., Cole, K.M. & Sheath, R.G. (2003). Systematics of Bangia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in North America. II. Biogeographical trends in karyology: chromosome numbers and linkage with gene sequence phylogenetic trees. Phycologia 42: 209-219.

Nelson, W.A. (2007). Bangiadulcis gen. nov.: a new genus for freshwater filamentous Bangiales (Rhodophyta). Taxon 56: 883-886.

Salavarría Palma, E.A. & Paul, S. (2020). A peep into the transcriptome studies of the industrially important brown algae with special focus on Macrocystis genus. Revista Peruana de Biología 27(1): 49-53.

Schubert, N., Garcia-Mendoza, E. & Pacheco-Ruiz, I. (2006). Carotenoid composition of marine red algae. Journal of Phycology 42: 1208-1216.

Sheath, R.G. & Sherwood, A.R. (2011). Rhodophyta (Red Algae). In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 159-180. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tanaka, T. (1952). The systematic study of the Japanese Protoflorideae. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University 2(2): 1-92, 41 figs, 23 pls.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1994). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIA - Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildenbrandiales and Gigartinales sensu lato). pp. [1]-508, 167 figs, 4 pls, 4 maps. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Created: 15 December 1997 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 23 July 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 10698 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Alongi, G. (1998). Struttura e periodismo del popolamento a Bangia atropurpurea (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) in due stazioni della Sicilia orientale. Boll. Acc. Gioenia Sci. Nat. 30(353): , 7 figs, 3 tables.
Belcher, J.H. (1956). On the occurrence of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) Ag. in a freshwater site in Britain. Hydrobiologia 8: 298-299.
Belcher, J.H. (1960). Culture studies of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) Ag.. New Phytologist 59: 367-373.
Charnofsky, K., Towill, L.R. & Sommerfeld, M.R. (1982). Light requirements for the monospore germination in Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 18: 417-422, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Chou, H.-N. & Jeng, J.-M. (1993). High performance liquid chromotography of biliprotein from Bangia atropurpurea 'Conchocelis'. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 571-576.
Cole, K.M., Park, C.M., Reid, P.E. & Sheath, R.G. (1985). Comparative studies on the cell walls of sexual and asexual Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta). I. Histochemistry of polysaccharides. Journal of Phycology 21: 585-592.
Cole, K.M., Park, C.M., Reid, P.E. & Sheath, R.G. (1986). Comparative studies on the cell walls of sexual and asexual Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta). II. Electrophoretic patterns of polysaccharides. Journal of Phycology 22: 406-409.
Eaton, J.W. & Meaden, D.F. (1981). The occurrence and ecology of Bangia atropurpurea in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. British Phycological Journal 16: 134-135.
Gargiulo, G.M., Culoso, F., Genovese, G. & De Masi, F. (1996). Karyology and effects of temperature and photoperiod on the life-history of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) C. Agardh (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the Mediterranean Sea. Cryptogamie, Algologie 17(1): 45-55.
Gargiulo, G.M., De Masi, F. & Tripodi, G. (1991). Karyology of Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta, Bangiales) from Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic Populations. Journal of Phycology 27: 306-309.
Gargiulo, G.M., Genovese, G., Morabito, M., Culoso, F. & De Masi, F. (2001). Sexual and asexual reproduction in a freshwater population of Bangia atropurpurea (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from eastern Sicily (Italy). Phycologia 40: 88-96.
Graham, J.M. & Graham, L.E. (1987). Growth and reproduction of Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) C. Ag. (Rhodophyta) from the Laurentian Great Lakes. Aquatic Botany 28: 317-331.
Gretz, M.R., Aronson, J.M. & Sommerfeld, M.R. (1986). Cell wall composition of the conchocelis phases of Bangia atropurpurea and Porphyra leucosticta. Botanica Marina 29: 91-96.
Gretz, M.R., McCandless, E.L., Aronson, J.M. & Sommerfeld, M.R. (1983). The galactan sulphates of the conchocelis phases of Porphyra leucosticta and Bangia atropurpurea. J. Exp. Bot. 34: 705-711.
Gretz, M.R., Sommerfeld, M.R. & Aronson, J.M. (1982). Cell wall composition of the generic phase of Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta). Botanica Marina 25: 529-535.
Nichols, H.W. & Veith, G.M. (1978). Development of Bangia atropurpurea. Phytomorphology 28: 322-328.
Reed, R.H. (1985). Osmoacclimation in Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta, Bangiales): the osmotic role of floridoside. British Phycological Journal 20: 211-218, 3 figs.
Scannell, M.J.P. (1972). Bangia atropurpurea (Roth) Ag. in Lough Derg, River Shannon. Irish Naturalists' Journal 17: 206-207.
Sheath, R.G. & Cole, K.M. (1980). Distribution and salinity adaptations of Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta), a putative migrant into the Laurentian great lakes. Journal of Phycology 16: 412-420.
Sheath, R.G., VanAlstyne, K.L. & Cole, K.M. (1985). Distribution, seasonality and reproductive phenology of Bangia atropurpurea (Rhodophyta) in Rhode Island, U.S.A.. Journal of Phycology 21: 297-303.
Spitale, D., Scalfi, A., Angeli, N. & Cantonati, M. (2012). Fine-scale spatial patterns of mature and immature filaments and bioorganic compounds of the rhodophyte Bangia atropurpurea in the supra- and eulittoral zones of a large lake (Note). Journal of Phycology 48(6): 1530-1534.
Youngs, H.L., Gretz, M.R., West, J.A. & Sommerfeld, M.R. (1998). The cell wall chemistry of Bangia atropurpurea (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) and Bostrychia moritziana (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) from marine and freshwater environments. Phycological Research 46: 63-73, 2 figs, 3 tables.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 September 2021.

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