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Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey 1917

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Solieriaceae
Genus Eucheuma


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Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Hawaii. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Hawaii; scale 10 mm. 15 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania. Katrin Østerlund. © Katrin Oesterlund (Katrin.Osterlund@uadm.uu.se).

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania; monolines with tie-tie pieces ready for attachment of seaweeds. Matern Mtolera. © Matern Mtolera (mtolera@ims.udsm.ac.tz).

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania; tie-tie pieces. Matern Mtolera. © Matern Mtolera (mtolera@ims.udsm.ac.tz).

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania; monolines. Matern Mtolera. © Matern Mtolera (mtolera@ims.udsm.ac.tz).

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania; drying cultivated plants on mats. Katrin Østerlund. © Katrin Oesterlund (Katrin.Osterlund@uadm.uu.se).

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania; cultivated plants underwater. Katrin Østerlund. © Katrin Oesterlund (Katrin.Osterlund@uadm.uu.se).

Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey
Tanzania; rope cultivation underwater. Katrin Østerlund. © Katrin Oesterlund (Katrin.Osterlund@uadm.uu.se).

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Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey Jambiani, Zanzibar; fixed off-bottom farms
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey 1917: 106

Published in: Collins, F.S. & Hervey, A.B. (1917). The algae of Bermuda. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 53: 1-195, 6 pls.
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Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Eucheuma is Eucheuma spinosum J.Agardh.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Fucus denticulatus N.L.Burman

Type information
Type locality: Uncertain (Silva & al. 1996: 330). Type: LINN 1274-104 (Yoshida 1998: 801). Notes: Said to be Cape Of Good Hope, South Africa, but probably in error (Silva, Meñez & Moe, 1987: 46). See Doty (1988: 179, 180).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus denticulatus N.L.Burman 1768

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus muricatus S.G.Gmelin 1768
Fucus spinosus Linnaeus 1771
Ulva papillosa Linnaeus 1771
Gigartina muricata (S.G.Gmelin) J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Chondria spinosa C.Agardh 1817
Ceramium spinosum (Linnaeus) Ruchinger 1818
Sphaerococcus spinosus C.Agardh 1822
Gigartina spinosa Greville 1830
Rhynchococcus spinosus (Linnaeus) Kützing 1843
Eucheuma spinosum J.Agardh 1847
Grateloupia opposita Kützing 1867
Eucheuma muricatum (S.G.Gmelin) Weber Bosse 1928

Distributional notes
Introduced into Fiji (N'Yeurt et al., 1996) and Hawaiian Islands (Abbott, 1999).

Usage notes
This is the "Spinosum" of commerce and a producer of iota-carrageenan. It is grown in the Philippines, Indonesia, Zanzibar, Madagascar, Kenya and Fiji.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Eucheuma spinosum J.Agardh)
Indonesian: Agar gésér (Kirby 1953).

Indonesion: Agar poeloe (Kirby 1953).

Malayan: Agar-agar kasar, Agar-agar haloes (Kirby 1953).

(as Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey)
Indonesian: Agar séran laoet (Kirby 1953).

(as Eucheuma muricatum (S.G.Gmelin) Weber Bosse)
Indonesian: Agae-poeloe (Ohmi 1968).

Japanese: Kirinsai, Ryukyu-tsunomata (Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
macassar; East Indian carrageen {Eng}; kirinsai {Jap}; ryukyu-tsunomata {Jap}; canot-canot {Ilo}; "carrageen, East Indian"

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus denticulatus N.L.Burman)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Fucus muricatus S.G.Gmelin)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Fucus spinosus Linnaeus)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Sphaerococcus spinosus C.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Gigartina spinosa Greville)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Eucheuma spinosum J.Agardh)
South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Grateloupia opposita Kützing)
Pacific Islands: New Caledonia (Millar & Prud'homme van Reine 2005).

(as Eucheuma denticulatum (N.L.Burman) Collins & Hervey)
Caribbean Islands: Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1969).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

Africa: Djibouti (Silva & al. 1996), Kenya (Silva & al. 1996, Wakibia et al 2006, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Madagascar (Silva & al. 1996), Mauritius (Silva & al. 1996), Mozambique (Silva & al. 1996, Bandeira, António & Critchley 2001, Carvalho & Bandeira 2003), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva & al. 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Réunion (Silva & al. 1996).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Silva & al. 1996), India (Silva & al. 1996, Rao & Gupta 2015).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Doty & Norris 1985, Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993, Silva & al. 1996), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Hurtado & Cheney 2003, Liao, Belleza & Gerldino 2013, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Silva & al. 1996, Pham & al. 2011).

Asia: China (Xia & Zhang 1999, Liu 2008), Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Huisman 2019), Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), Lord Howe Island (Lewis 1984), Queensland (Lewis 1984, Cribb 1996, Phillips 1997, Huisman 2000, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), Western Australia (Huisman 2000, Huisman & Borowitzka 2003, Huisman 2008, Huisman & Saunders 2018).

Pacific Islands: Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996), Hawaiian Islands (Doty & Norris 1985, Abbott 1999, McDermid & al. 2005, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007 ), New Caledonia (Payri 2007).

(as Eucheuma muricatum (S.G.Gmelin) Weber Bosse)
Asia: Japan (Segawa 1981), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Key references
Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Doty, M.S. & Norris, J.N. (1985). Eucheuma species (Solieriaceae, Rhodophyta) that are major sources of carrageenan. In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. & Norris, J.N. Eds), pp. 47-61. La Jolla: California Sea Grant College Program [Report T-CSGCP-011].

Doty, M.S. (1988). Podromus ad systematica Eucheumatoideorum: a tribe of commercial seaweeds related to Eucheuma (Solieriaceae, Gigartinales). In: Taxonomy of economic seaweeds with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.2, pp. 159-207. La Jolla: California Sea Grant College Program [Report T-CSGCP-018].

Huisman, J.M. (2018). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of north-western Australia. 2. Red algae. pp. [i]-xii, 1-672, 189 figs. Canberra & Melbourne: ABRS & CSIRO Publishing.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

McDermid, K.J., Stuercke, B. & Haleakala, O.J. (2005). Total dietary fiber content in Hawaiian marine algae. Botanica Marina 48: 437-440.

Wakibia, J.G., Bolton, J.J., Keats, D.W. & Raitt, L.M. (2006). Seasonal changes in carrageenan yield and gel properties in three commercial eucheumoids grown in southern Kenya. Botanica Marina 49: 208-215.

Created: 19 January 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 16 January 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 103084 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Andriamampandry, A.V. (1991). Confirmation de la présence d'Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman f.) Collins et Hervey (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) à Fort-Dauphin, Madagascarq. Cryptogamie, Algologie 12: p 67.
Buriyo, A.S., Semesi, A.K. & Mtolera, M.S.P. (2001). The effect of seasons on yield and quality of carrageenan from Tanzanian alga Eucheuma denticulatum (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). South African Journal of Botany 67(3): 488-491.
Chato-Salvador, R., Tablizo, F.A. & Lluisma, A.O. (2014). Non-enzymatic isolation of somatic cells from Kappaphycus spp. and Eucheuma denticulatum (Solieraceae, Rhodophyta). European Journal of Phycology 49(4): 486-492.
Collen, J., Pederson, M., Ramazanov, R., Mtolera, M., Ngoile, M. & Semesi, A.K. (1992). Carbon assimilation of Eucheuma denticulatum. In: Proc. First International Workshop on Sustainable Seaweed Resource Development in sub-Saharan Africa. (Mshigeni, K.E., Bolton, J., Critchley, A.T. & Kiangi, G.E. Eds), pp. 77-83. Namibia: Windhoek.
Dawes, C. J., Trono Jr., G. C. & Lluisma, A. O. (1993). Clonal propagation of Eucheuma denticulatum and Kappaphycus alvarezii for Philippine seaweed farms. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 379-383.
Dawes, C.J. (1992). Irradiance acclimination of the cultured Phillipine seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum. Botanica Marina 35: 189-195.
Dawes, C.J. (1995). The effect of nutrient and photon fluence on the photosynthetic responses of red and green pigmented cultivars of Eucheuma denticulatum. Botanica Marina 38: 323-327, 2 figs, 1 table.
Ganzon-Fortes, E.T., Trono, G.C., Jr, Villanueva, R.D., Romero, J.B., Montaño, M.N.E. (2012). 'Endong', a rare variety of the farmed carrageenophyte Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman) Collins & Hervey from the Philippines. Journal of Applied Phycology 24: 1107-1111.
Glenn, E.P. & Doty, M.S. (1981). Photosynthesis and respiration of the tropical red seaweeds, Eucheuma striatum (Tambalang and Elkhorn varieties) and E. denticulatum. Aquatic Botany 10: 353-364.
Granbom, M. & Pedersén, M. (1999). Carbon acquisition strategies of the red alga Eucheuma denticulatum. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 16: 349-354.
Hurtado, A.Q. & Cheney, D.P. (2003). Propagule production of Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman) Collins et Harvey by tissue culture. Botanica Marina 46: 338-341.
Mollion, J., Andriantsiferana, M. & Sekkal, M. (1990). A study of the phycocolloids from Gelidium madagascariense and Eucheuma denticulatum (Rhodophyta) collected on the south coast of Madagascar. Hydrobiologia 204/205: 655-659.
Mollion, J., Andriantsiferana, M. & Sekkal, M. (1990). A study of the phycocolloids from Gelidium madagascariense and Eucheuma denticulatum (Rhodophyta) collected on the south coasts of Madagascar. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 13: 655-659.
Mtolera, M.S.P., Collén, J., Pedersén, M. & Semesi, A.K. (1995). Destructive hydrogen peroxide production in Eucheuma denticulatum (Rhodophyta) during stress caused by elevated pH, high light intensities and competition with other species. European Journal of Phycology 30: 289-297, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Mtolera, M.S.P., Collén, J., Pedersén, M., Ekdahl, A., Abrahamsson, K. & Semesi, A.K. (1996). Stress-induced production of volatile halogenated organic compounds in Eucheuma denticulatum (Rhodophyta) caused by elevated pH and high light intensities. European Journal of Phycology 31: 89-95, 1 fig, 1 table.
Villanueva, R.D. & Montano, M.N.E. (2014). Enhancement of carrageenan gel quality in the commercially important tropical seaweed Eucheuma denticulatum (Rhodophyta), with postharvest treatment in low-nutrient conditions. Botanica Marina 57(3): 217-223.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 February 2021.

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