157,361 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,053 images, 60,816 bibliographic items, 456,219 distributional records.

Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae
Genus Gymnodinium


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Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Pond, Lugols, 1000x, DIC. 09 Apr 2011. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun.

Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Pond, Lugols, 1000x, DIC. 09 Apr 2011. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun.


Corynospora multifida (Hudson) P.Crouan & H.Crouan

Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; Pond, Lugols, 1000x, DIC
© Karl Bruun

Publication details
Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein 1878: 95

Published in: Stein, F. von (1878). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere nach eigenen forschungen in systematischere Reihenfolge bearbeitet. III. Abtheilung. Die Naturgeschichte der Flagellaten oder Geisselinfusorien. I. Hälfte, Den noch nicht abgeschlossenen allgemeinen Theil nebst erklärung: Der sämmtlichen Abbildungen enthaltend. pp. i-x, 1-154, pls I-XXIV. Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Gymnodinium.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Peridinium fuscum Ehrenberg

Type information
Type locality: bei Berlin zwischen Conferven (Silva 1996-to date). Type: 4. Mai 1832; see above. (Silva 1996-to date

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), a sombre brown, but often used to indicate darkness of colour (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Peridinium fuscum Ehrenberg 1834

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Rhizodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Loeblich Jr. & Loeblich III 1968
Cystodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Bourrelly 1970
Gymnodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Bourrelly 1970

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gymnodinium fuscum (Ehrenberg) F.Stein)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Black Sea (Goméz & Boicenco 2004, BSPC Editorial Board 2014, Krakhmalnyi et al. 2018), Britain (Lewis & Dodge 2002, Whitton et al. 2003, John, Whitton & Brook 2011, Moestrup & Calado 2018), France (Anon. 2017), Georgia (Barinova et al. 2011), Germany (Täuscher 2013, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016), Mediterranean (Gómez 2003), Netherlands (Veen et al. 2015), Poland (Moestrup & Calado 2018), Portugal (Moestrup & Calado 2018), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason et al. 2018), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Sweden (Skuja 1948), Ukraine (Moestrup & Calado 2018).

North America: Great Lakes (Prescott 1962), Maryland (MD) (Moestrup & Calado 2018), Mexico (Pacific) (Okolodkov & Gárate Lizárraga 2006), Québec (Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995), Tennessee (TN) (Johansen et al. 2007).

South America: Brazil (Bicudo & Skvortzov, 1970, Odebrecht 2010, Moestrup & Calado 2018).

Africa: Sierra Leone (Alfinito 2011).

Middle East: Iraq (Maulood et al. 2013, Al-Saboonchi, A.A. & Al-Shawi, I.J.M.), Turkey (Aysel 2005, Taskin (ed.) et al. 2019).

South-west Asia: India (Keshri et al. 2013).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Chang et al. 2012), Queensland (Day et al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000), Tasmania (Day et al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000, Moestrup & Calado 2018), Victoria (Day et al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000, Kremp et al 2005).

World: World (Gómez 2005, Gómez 2012).

(as Cystodinium gessneri (Baumeister) Bourrelly)
World: World (Gómez 2005).

Key references
Carty, S. (2014). Freshwater dinoflagellates of North America. pp. [i]-viii, [2], [1]-260, 153 figs. Ithaca & London: Comstock Publishing Associates. A division of Cornell University Press.

Dillard, G.E. (2007). Freshwater algae of the southeastern United States Part 8. Chrysophyceae, Xanthophyceae, Cryptophyceae and Dinophyceae. Bibliotheca Phycologica 112: [i-vi], 1-127, 22 pls.

Flø Jørgesen, M., Murray, S. and Daugbjerg, N. (2004). Amphidinium revisited. I. Redefinition of Amphidinium (Dinophyceae) based on cladistic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Journal of Phycology 40: 351-365, 6 Figs.

Hansen, G. & Flaim, G. (2007). Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy. Journal of Limnology 66: 107-141.

Hansen, G., Moestrup, Ø. & Roberts, K.R. (2001 '2000'). Light and electron microscopical observations on the type species of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 39: 365-376.

Hoppenrath, M. & Leander, B.S. (2007). Character evolution in polykrikoid dinoflagellates. Journal of Phycology 43(2): 366-377, 5 figs, 2 tables.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Lewis, J.M. & Dodge, J.D. (2011). Dinophyta (Dinoflagellates). In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 250-274. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lindberg, K., Moestrup, Ø & Daugbjerg, N. (2005). Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates I: Woloszynskia coronata re-examined using light and electron microscopy and partial LSU rDNA sequences, with description of Tovellia gen. nov. and Jadwigia gen. nov. (Tovelliaceae fam. nov.). Phycologia 44: 416-440.

Moestrup, Ø. & Calado, A.J. (2018). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Freshwater Flora of Central Europe, Volume 6: Dinophyceae. pp. [i]-xii, [1]-560, 421 figs. Berlin: Springer Spektrum.

Popovsky, J. & Pfiester, L.A. (1990). Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Vol. 6. Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellida). pp. 1-272. Jena & Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.

Schiller, J. (1932). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. 10. Bd 3. Abt. 1 Teil. (Kolkwitz, R. Eds), pp. 257-432. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H.

Schilling, A.J. (1913). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Die Süsswasser-Flora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. Heft 3. (Pascher, A. Eds), pp. [1]-iv, 1-66. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Thessen, A.E., Patterson, D.J. & Murray, S.A. (2012). The taxonomic significance of species that have only been observed once: The genus Gymnodinium (Dinoflagellata) as an example. PLoS ONE 7(8): e44015.

Thompson, R.H. (1947). Fresh-water dinoflagellates of Maryland. Contributions from the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory 67: 3-24.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 November 2018 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5080 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Dodge, J.D. & Crawford, R.M. (1969). The fine structure of Gymnodinium fuscum (Dinophyceae). New Phytologist 68: 613-618.
Hansen, G., Moestrup, Ø. & Roberts, K.R. (2001 '2000'). Light and electron microscopical observations on the type species of Gymnodinium, G. fuscum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 39: 365-376.

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Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 22 January 2020.

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