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Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux 1813

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gigartinales
Family Cystocloniaceae
Genus Hypnea


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Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; hooked apices; scale 1 mm. 01 Jul 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman; scale 1 mm.

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Tanzania. Katrin Østerlund. © Katrin Oesterlund (Katrin.Osterlund@uadm.uu.se).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Madeira, with Cystoseira compressa. Peter Wirtz. © Peter Wirtz (peterwirtz2004@yahoo.com ).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Madeira. Peter Wirtz. © Peter Wirtz (peterwirtz2004@yahoo.com ).

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux
Madeira. Peter Wirtz. © Peter Wirtz (peterwirtz2004@yahoo.com ).

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Polycavernosa subtilis B.M.Xia & I.A.Abbott

Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux South west of France, 2014,
© Ignacio Barbara

Publication details
Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V.Lamouroux 1813: 43 (131 in reprint)

Published in: Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1813). Essai sur les genres de la famille des Thalassiophytes non articulées. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 20: 21-47, 115-139, 267-293, pls 7-13.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Hypnea.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Fucus musciformis Wulfen

Type information
Type locality: Trieste, Italy (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996: 300).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), moss-like.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus musciformis Wulfen 1791
Ceramium musciforme (Wulfen) Ruchinger 1818
Sphaerococcus musciformis (Wulfen) C.Agardh 1822
Hypnophycus musciformis (Wulfen) Kützing 1843

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Sphaerococcus divaricatus C.Agardh 1827
Hypnea rissoana J.Agardh 1842
Hypnea arborescens P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1865

Distributional notes
Guiry (1997) notes this may occur on the south coast of England.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Hayee-Memon, A. & Shameel, M. (1996). A taxonomic study of some red algae commonly growing on the coast of Karachi. Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 5(2): 113-137.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Jesus, P.B., Nauer, F., Lyra, G.M., Araújo, V.L., Carvalho, A. S., Nunes, J.M.C., Cassano, V., Oliveira, M.C. & Selbach, A. (2019). Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Hypnea (Cystocloniaceae, Rhodophyta): convergent evolution and its implications in the infrageneric classification. Botanic Marina 62(6): 563-575.

Masuda, M., Yamagishi, Y., Chiang, Y.-M., Lewmanomont, K. & Xia, B.M. (1997). Overview of Hypnea (Rhodophyta, Hypneaceae). In: Taxonomy of Economic Seaweeds. (Abbott, I.A. Eds) Vol.6, pp. 127-133. La Jolla, California: California Sea Grant College System.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nauer, F., Guimarães, N.R., Cassano, V., Yokoya, N.S., Oliveira, M.C. (2014). Hypnea species (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from the southeastner coast of Brazil based on molecular studies complemented with morphological analyses, including descriptions of Hypnea edeniana sp. nov. and H. flava sp. nov. European Journal of Phycology 49(4): 550-575, 54 fig., 3 tables.

Nauer, F., Gurgel, C.F.D, Ayres-Ostrock, L.M., Plastino, E.M. & Oliveira, M.C. (2019). Phylogeography of the Hypnea musciformis species complex (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) with the recognition of cryptic species in the western Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Phycology 55(3): 676-687.

Núñez Resendiz, M.L., Dreckmann, K.M., Sentíes, A., Wynne, M.J. Tejera, H.L. (2019). Marine red algae (Rhodophyta) of economic use in the algal drifts from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Phytotaxa 387(3): 219-240, 3 tables, 64 figs.

Okamura, K. (1909). Icones of Japanese Algae. Vol. II pp. 21-40, Plates LVI-LX. Tokyo: published by the author.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Vásquez-Delfín, E., Boo, G.H., Rodríguez, D., Boo, S.M. & Robledo, D. (2016). Hypnea musciformis (Cystocloniaceae) from the Yucatan Peninsula: morphological variability in relation to life-cycle phase. Phycologia 55(2): 230-242.

Wynne, M.J. (2002). A description of Plocamium fimbriatum sp. nov. (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta), from the Sultanate of Oman, with a census of currently recognized species of the genus. Nova Hedwigia 75: 333-356.

Zinova, A.D. (1967). Opredelitel zelenikh, burikh i krasnich odoroslei juzhnikh morei SSSR [Guide to the green, brown and red algae of the southern seas of USSR]. pp. 1-398. Moscow, Leningrad: Academia Nauk. [in Russian]

Created: 09 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 10 February 2020 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 22262 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Apt, K.E. (1984). Note: Effects of the symbiotic red alga Hypneocolax stellaris on its host Hypnea musciformis (Hypneaceae, Gigartinales). Journal of Phycology 20: 148-150, 1 fig, 1 table.
Berchez, F. A. S., Pereira, R. T. L. & Kamiya, N. F. (1993). Culture of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) on artificial substrates attached to linear ropes. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 14: 415-420.
Berchez, F.A.S. & Oliveira, E.C. (1990). Maricultual assays with the carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis in S. Paulo, Brazil. In: Cultivation of seaweeds in Latin America. (Oliveira, E.C. & Kautsky, N. Eds), pp. 89-94. Sao Paulo: University of Sao Paulo.
Chiang, C.F., Xia, E.Z. & Xia, B.M. (1963). A comparative study of Hypnea musciformis (Wulf.) Lamx. and Hypnea japonica Tanaka. Oceanologia et limnologia Sinica 5: 35-43, 1 plate.
Dawes, C.J., Moon, R. & LaClaire, J. (1976). Photosynthetic responses of the red alga, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Gigartinales). Bulletin of Marine Science 26: 467-473.
De Goracuchi, C., Lokar-Coassini, L., Bruni, G. & Davanzo, S. (1969). Richerche sulle possibilità di sfruttamento economico delle alghe dell'Alto Adriatico. Caratteristiche fisico-chimiche del polisaccaride solfato dell' Hypnea musciformis e loro variabilità stagionale. Boll. Soc. Adriatica Sci. Trieste 57: 131-152.
Friedlander, M. & Zelikovitch (1984). Growth rates, phycocolloid yield and quality of the red seaweeds, Gracilaria sp., Pterocladia capillacea, Hypnea musciformis, and Hypnea cornuta, in field studies in Israel. Aquaculture 40: 57-66.
Haines, K.C. & Wheeler, P.A. (1978). Ammonium and nitrate uptake by the marine macrophytes Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta) and Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 319-324, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Kapraun, D.F., Bailey, J.C. & Dutcher, J.A. (1994). Nuclear genome characterization of the Carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 6: 7-12.
Knutsen, S.H., Murano, E., D'Amato, M., Toffanin, R., Rizzo, R. & Paoletti, S. (1995). Modified procedures for extraction and analysis of carrageenan applied to the red alga Hypnea musciformis. Journal of Applied Phycology 7: 565-576.
Martins, A.P., Yokoya, N.S., Carvalho, M.A.M. & Plastino, E.M. (2009). Effects of kinetin and nitrogen on growth rates, pigment and protein contents in wild and phycoerythrin-deficient strains of Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 317-323, 5 figs.
Melo, V.M.M., Medeiros, D.A., Rios, F.J.B., Castelar, L.I.M. & Carvalho, A. de F.F.U. (1997). Antifungal properties of proteins (agglutinins) from the red alga Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux.. Botanica Marina 40: 281-284.
Mollion, J. (1978). Seasonal variations in carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis, (Florideophyceae) in Senegal. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 9: 233-240.
Mshigeni, K.E. & Lorris, W.S.M. (1977). Spore germination and early stages of development in Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Marine Biology, Berlin 42: 161-164, 2 figs.
Muñoz, O., Palma, H. & Guevara, G. (1986). Agar content of two species of Rhodophyte algae, Gracilaria domingensis Sonder and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux from the Margarita Island coast, Venezuela. Conv. Nac. Asivac. 36: 188.
Nauer, F., Cassano, V. & Oliveira, M.C. (2015). Description of Hypnea pseudomusciformis sp. nov., a new species based on molecular and morphological analyses, in the context of the H. musciformis complex (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology 27: 2405-2417, 5 figs.
Nauer, F., Cassano, V. & Oliviera. M.C. (2019). Description of two new Caribbean species from the Hypnea musciformis complex (Cystocloniaceae, Rhodophyta). Phytotaxa 408(2): 85-93, 5 figs.
Nauer, F., Gurgel, C.F.D, Ayres-Ostrock, L.M., Plastino, E.M. & Oliveira, M.C. (2019). Phylogeography of the Hypnea musciformis species complex (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) with the recognition of cryptic species in the western Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Phycology 55(3): 676-687.
Ramarao, K. & Krishnamurthy, V. (1968). Study of the preperation and properties of the phycocolloid from Hypnea musciformis (Wulf) Lamour from Veraval, Gujarat Coast. Botanica Marina 11: 129-134.
Reis, R.P. & Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. (2000). Phenology of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) in three populations from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Botanica Marina 43: 299-304, 4 figs.
Russell, D.J. (1992). The ecological invasion of Hawaiian reefs by two marine red algae, Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl.) Boerg. and Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J. Ag. and their association with two native species, Laurencia nidfica J. Ag. and Hypnea cervicornis J. Ag.. In: Introductions and Transfers of Aquatic Species. (Sinderman, C., Steinmetz, B. & Herschbergen, W. Eds), pp. 110-125. Halifax, N.S.: ICES Marine Science Symp.,.
Schenkman, R.P.F. (1989). Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta): ecological influence on growth. Journal of Phycology 25: 192-196.
Vásquez-Delfín, E., Boo, G.H., Rodríguez, D., Boo, S.M. & Robledo, D. (2016). Hypnea musciformis (Cystocloniaceae) from the Yucatan Peninsula: morphological variability in relation to life-cycle phase. Phycologia 55(2): 230-242.
Yokoya, N.S., Plastino, E.M. & Artel, R. (2003). Physiological responses and pigment characterization of two colour strains of the carrageenophyte Hypnea musciformis (Rhodophyta). Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 17: 425-434.

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Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 September 2020.

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