163,778 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,043 bibliographic items, 481,364 distributional records.

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar 1873

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Laminariales
Family Alariaceae
Genus Undaria


click on thumbnail for larger version.

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
Venice, Italy; small plants in a zone at low water. 08 Jun 2008. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
Venice, Italy. 08 Jun 2008. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
Venice, Italy; on chains of vaperetto stop. 08 Jun 2008. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
microscope, Ría de Corme, Galicia, Spain, 2007; section of frond. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
microscope, Ría de Corme, Galicia, Spain, 2007; section of thallus. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
lower intertidal with Sargassum muticum, Aveiro, North of Portugal, 2006. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
lower intertidal with Sargassum muticum, Aveiro, North of Portugal, 2006. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
lower intertidal with Saccorhiza polyschides, Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
subtidal (-2m), Spain, Galicia, Ría de Vigo, 2007. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar
subtidal on maërl bed, Ría de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2006. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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73 Found - Displaying 61 through 70


Chondria hamulosa (Esper) C.Agardh

Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar Undaria pinnatifida, Safety Cove, Tasmania, Australia
© Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar 1873: 77, pls VI, VII [6, 7]

Published in: Suringar, W.F.R. (1873). Illustrationes des algues du Japon. Musée Botanique de Leide 1: 77-90, pls 26-33.

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Undaria.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Alaria pinnatifida Harvey

Type information
Type locality: "Simoda, Japan." [Shimoda, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.] (Harvey 1860: 329). Type: TCD (Lee & Yoon 1998: 429). Notes: Collector: Wright (INA).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), pinnately cleft (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Alaria pinnatifida Harvey 1860
Ulopteryx pinnatifida (Harvey) Kjellman 1885

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Undaria pinnatifida var. distans Miyabe & Okamura
Undaria pinnatifida f. narutensis Yendo
Undaria pinnatifida f. typica Yendo
Undaria pinnatifida f. subflabellata Suringar
Alaria amplexicaulis Martens 1866
Undaria pinnatifida var. vulgaris Suringar 1872
Undaria pinnatifida var. elongata Suringar 1872
Undaria pinnatifida f. distans (Miyabe & Okamura) Yendo 1911

Distributional notes
Womersley (2003: 499, 500) notes that this species has been recorded from southern Australian coasts and that it should be regarded as a serious pest. - (19 Feb 2009) - Wendy Guiry

This species has been introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 57) being first found in the Etang de Thau (France) in 1971. - (3 Nov 2015) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Species of considerable economic importance as food source in Japan, Korea and China (trade name: Wakame). Total annual yield from natural harvest and cultivation sites of Undaria spp. was about 130,000 tons fresh weight in 1967 (Saito 1975). Long-line culture started in the early 1960's and meanwhile production increased to about 30% of the wild harvest in Japan (Sanbonsuga 1984). For cultivation methods and propagation of Undaria see Saito (1975) and Jung (1988). Some progress has been made in tissue culture, protoplast isolation and cryopreservation (Arbault et al. 1990, Chen 1984, Shabao 1988, Tokuda & Kawashima 1988). More information at Surialink - (28 Aug 2006) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar)
Chinese: Qun dai cai (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

English: Sea mustard (Kirby 1953), Precious sea grass (Rhoads & Zunic 1978), Wakame (Bunker & al. 2010).

Japanese: Wakame (Madlener 1977).

Korean: Miyok (Madlener 1977), Miyeouk (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Adams, N.M. (1997). Common seaweeds of New Zealand. pp. [1]-48, 48 pls. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press.

Belous, O.S., Titlyanova, T.V. & Titlyanov, E.A. (2013). Morskiye rasteniya bukhty Troitsy i smezhnykh akvatorii radno (Zaliv Petra Velikogo, Yaponskoye more) [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. 263, profusely illustrated. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program. [in Korean]

Cho, G.Y. (2010). Laminariales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 2, Number 2. Heterokontophyta: Phaeophyceae: Ishigeales, Dictyotales, Desmarestiales, Sphacelariales, Cutleriales, Ralfisales, Laminariales. (Anon. Eds), pp. 175-196. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Catra, M., Alongi, G. & Giaccone, G. (2012). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Phaeophyceae. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 45: 1-508.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Lane, C.E., Mayes, C., Druehl, L.D. & Saunders, G.W. (2006). A multi-gene molecular investigation of the kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) supports substantial taxonomic re-organization. Journal of Phycology 42: 493-512.

Nelson, W.A. (2013). New Zealand seaweeds. An illustrated guide. pp. [1]-328. Wellington: Te Papa Press.

Pedroche, P.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar Rosas, R. (2008). Catálogo de las algas benthónicas del Pacífico de México II. Phaeophycota. pp. [i-viii], i-vi, 15-146. Mexicali & Berkeley: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California; University of California Berkeley.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Scott, F.J. (2017). Marine plants of Tasmania. pp. [i]-viii, 1-360, numerous col. illus. Hobart: Tasmania Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae e Xanthophyceae). Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-234, pls 1-51. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Sfriso, A., Buosi, A., Wolf, M.A. & Sfriso, A.A. (2019). Invasion of alien macroalgae in the Venice Lagoon, a pest or a resource?. Aquatic Invasions 15(2): 245-270, 29 figs.

Stiger-Pouvreau, V. & Thouzeau, G. (2015). Marine species introduced on the French Channel-Atlantic coasts: A review of main biological invasions and impacts. Open Journal of Ecology 5: 227-257.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanova, T.V. (2012). Morskiye rasteniya stran Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskogo regiona, ikh ispol'zovaniye i kul'tivirovaniye [Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation]. pp. 376, 52 numbered figures, 162 plates. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photographs and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Yoshida, T. (1998). Marine algae of Japan. pp. [1-2], 1-25, 1-1222. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Created: 09 April 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 April 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 74935 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aguilar-Rosas, R., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Avila-Serrano, G. & Marcos-Ramirez, R. (2004). First record of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Botanica Marina 47: 255-258.
Akiyama, K. & Kurogi, M. (1982). Cultivation of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, the decrease in crops from natural plants following crop increase from cultivation. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 44: 91-100.
Alexandrova, Y.N. & Reunov, A.A. (2008). The oogonia of macroalga Undaria pinnatifida are alkaline-phosphatase positive and contain germinal body-like structures. Journal of Phycology 44: 712-715.
Alvarez, M.V. & Boraso, A.L. (2020). Development morphology of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes (Phaeophyceae, Alariaceae) in Caleta Cordova (Chubut, Argentina). Marine and Fishery Sciences 33(1): 77-94, 7 figs.
Apoya, M., Ogawa, H. & Nanba, N. (2002). Alginate content of farmed Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar from the Three Bays of Iwate, Japan during harvest period. Botanica Marina 45: 445-452.
Ávila-Peltroche, J., Won, B.Y. & Cho, T.O. (2020). Optimization of protoplast isolation from the gametophytes of brown alga Undaria pinnatifida using response surface methodology. Journal of Applied Phycology 32: 2233-2244, 4 figures, 7 tables.
Báez, J.C., Olivero, J., Peteiro, C., Ferri-Yánez, F., García-Soto, C. & Real, R. (2010). Macro-environmental modelling of the current distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) in northern Iberia. Biological Invasions 12: 21-31.
Boudouresque, C.-F., Gerbal, M. & Knoepffler-Peguy, M. (1985). L'algue japonnaise Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) en Méditerranée. Phycologia 24: 364-366.
Brown, M.T. & Lamare, M.D. (1994). The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringer within Timaru Harbour, New Zealand. Japanese Journal of Phycology 42: 63-70.
Campbell, S.J., Bité, J.S. & Burridge, T.R. (1999). Seasonal patterns in the photosynthetic capacity, tissue pigment and nutrient content of different development stages of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) in Port Phillip Bay, South-Eastern Australia. Botanica Marina 42: 231-242.
Carvalho, M.C., Hayashizaki, K. & Ogawa, H. (2009). Environment determines nitrogen content and stable isotope composition in the sporophyte of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 245-253, 5 figs, 1 table.
Casas, G. N. & Piriz, M. L. (1996). Surveys of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 213-215.
Casas, G., Scrosati, R. & Piriz, M.L. (2004). The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) reduces native seaweed diversity in Nuevo Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina). Biological Invasions 6: 411-416.
Casas, G.N. & Piriz, M.L. (1996). Surveys of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in Golfo Nuevo, Argentina. Hydrobiologia : In Press.
Castric-Fey, A., Beaupoil, C., Bouchain, J., Pradier, E. & L'Hardy-Halos, M.Th. (1999). The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St. Malo area: growth rate and logevity of the sporophyte. Botanica Marina 42: 83-96, 8 figs, 5 tables.
Castric-Fey, A., Beaupoil, C., Bouchain, J., Pradier, E. & L'Hardy-Halos, M.Th. (1999). The introduced alga Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Alariaceae) in the rocky shore ecosystem of the St. Malo area: morphology and growth of the Sporophyte. Botanica Marina 42: 71-82, 18 figs, 1 table.
Castric-Fey, A., Girard, A. & L'Hardy-Halos, M.T. (1993). The distribution of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales) on the coast of St. Malo (Brittany, France). Botanica Marina 36: 351-358, 5 figs.
Cazon, J.P., Viera, M., Sala, S. & Donati, E. (2014). Biochemical characterization of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae) in relation to their potentiality as biosorbents. Phycologia 53(1): 100-108.
Cecere, E., Petrocelli, A. & Saracino, O.D. (2000). Undaria pinnatifida (Fucophyceae, Laminariales) spread in the central Mediterranean: its occurrence in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy). Cryptogamie, Algologie 21: 305-309.
Chenlo, F., Arufe, S., Díaz, D., Torres, M.D., Sineiro, J. & Moreira, R. (2018). Air-drying and rehydration characteristics of the brown seaweeds, Ascophyllum nodosum and Undaria pinnatifida. Journal of Applied Phycology 30: 1259-1270.
Cremades, J., Freire, O., Salinas, J.M., Peteiro, C. & Fuertes, C. (). Estado actual de desarrollo del cultivo industrial para el "wakame" (Undaria pinnatifida) en las Rías gallegas (N.O. de España). Algas 34: 18.
Cremades, J., Freire-Gago, Ó. & Peteiro, C. (2006). Biología, distribución e integración del alga alóctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) en las comunidades bentónicas de las costas de Galicia (NW de la Península Ibérica). Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 63: 169-187.
Cremades, J., Salinas, J.M., Granja, A., Bárbara, I., Veiga, A.J., Pérez-Cirera, J.L. & Fuertes, C. (1997). Factores que influyen en la viabilidad y crecimiento de Undaria pinnatifida en cultivo: fouling, tamaño de plántula y periodos de aclimatación presiembra. Nova Acta Cientifica Compostelana (Bioloxia) 7: 29-40, 8 fig., 4 tables.
Curiel, D., Bellemo, G., Marzocchi, M., Scattolin, M. & Parisi, G. (1998). Distribution of introduced Japanese macroalgae Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyta) and Antithamnion pectinatum (Rhodophyta) in the Lagoon of Venice. Hydrobiologia 385: 17-22, 6 figs, 1 table.
Curiel, D., Rismondo, A., Marzocchi, M. & Solazzi, A. (1994). Distribuzione di Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) nella Laguna di Venezia. Soc. Ven. Sc. Nat. 19: 121-126, 3 figs.
de Carvalho, M.C., Hayashizaki, K. & Ogawa, H. (2010). Temperature effect on carbon isotopic discrimination by Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta) in a closed experimental system. Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1180-1186.
Dean, P.R. & Hurd, C.L. (2007). Seasonal growth, erosion rates, and nitrogen and photosynthetic ecophysiology of Undaria pinnatifida (Heterokontophyta) in southern New Zealand. Journal of Phycology 43: 1138-1148.
Ding Min, Z., Guo Rong, M. & Lu Qing, P. (1984). Studies on Undaria pinnatifida. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 11: 263-265.
Fletcher, R.L. & Farrell, P. (1999). Introduced brown algae in the north east Atlantic, with particular respect to Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 259-275.
Fletcher, R.L. & Manfredi, C. (1995). The occurrence of Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae, Laminarales) on the south coast of England. Botanica Marina 38: 355-358.
Fleurence, J. & Le Coeur, C. (1994). Influence of digestion procedures on the determination of lead and cadmium levels in the Laminariale Undaria pinnatifida (Wakame) by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Botanica Marina 37: 555-559, 5 tables.
Floc'h, J.-Y., Pajot, R. & Mouret, V. (1996). Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) 12 years after its introduction into the Atlantic Ocean. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 15: 217-222.
Floc'h, J.Y., Pagot, R. & Wallentinus, I. (1991). The Japanese brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on the coast of France and its possible establishment in European waters. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 47: 379-390.
Forrest, B.M., Brown, S.N., Taylor, M.D., Hurd, C.L. & Hay, C.H. (2001 '2000'). The role of natural dispersal mechanisms in the spread of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 39: 547-553.
Freire-Gago, O., Peteiro, C. & Cremades, J. (2006). La integracion del alga aloctona Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) en la flora de las costas atlánticas peninsulares. Algas 35(Junio): 25-32, 2 figs. [in Spanish]
Hay, C.H. & Luckens, P.A. (1987). The Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) found in a New Zealand harbour. New Zealand Journal of Botany 25: 329-332.
Hay, C.H. & Villouta, E. (1993). Seasonality of the adventive Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida in New Zealand. Botanica Marina 36: 461-476, 8 figs.
Hay, C.H. (1990). The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in New Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. British Phycological Journal 25: 301-313.
Huh, M.K., Huh, H.W., Moon, S.G., Choi, C.M. & Lee, H.Y. (2001). Genetic diversity of cultivated Undaria pinnatifida populations from Korea based on allozyme variation analysis. Algae 16(4): 429-435, 2 figs, 6 figs.
Kang, R.S. & Yoo, S. (1993). The acute toxicity of three oils to the early life stages of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar. Korean Journal of Phycology 8(1): 77-82, 2 tables. [in Korean]
Katsuoka, M., Ogura, C., Etoh, H., Sakata, K. & Ina, K. (1990). Galactosyldiacylglycerols and Sulfoquinovosyldiacyl-Glycerols isolated from the brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Costaria costata as repellents of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Agr Biol Chem Tokyo 54(11): 3043-3044.
Kawashima, Y. & Tokuda, H. (1993). Regeneration from callus of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta). Hydrobiologia 260/261: 385-389.
Kim, M.-K. & Lee, H.-W. (1998). Changes in B-carotene content in fresh and dry thalli of Undaria pinnatifida and Enteromorpha compressa from Korea. Algae 13(1): 151-155, 5 figs, 1 table.
Kim, W.-J., Kim, S.-M., Kim, H.-G., Oh, H.-R., Lee, K.B., Lee, Y.-K. & Park, Y.-I. (2007). Purification and anticoagulant activity of a fucoidan from Korean Undaria pinnatifida sporophyll. Algae 22(3): 247-252, 5 figs, 1 table.
Kimura, T., Ezura, Y. & Tajima, K. (1976). Microbiological study of a disease of wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and of the marine environments of wakame culture sites in Kesennuma Bay. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Res. Lab. 36: 57-65.
Kito, H., Akiyama, K. & Sasaki, M. (1976). Electron microscopic observations on the diseased thalli of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, caused by parasitic bacteria. Bull. Tohoku Reg. Fish. Lab. 36: 67-73.
Kurogi, M. & Akiyama, K. (1957). Studies of ecology and culture of Undaria pinnatifida (Sur.) Hariot. Bull Tôhoku Reg Fish Res Lab No 10: 95-117.
Leal, P.B., Hurd, C.L., Sander, S.G., Kortner, B. & Roledo, M.Y. (2016). Exposure to chronic and high dissolved copper concentrations impedes meiospore development of the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida (Ochrophyta). Phycologia 55(1): 12-20.
Leal, P.P., Hurd, C.L., Fernández, P.A. & Roledo, M.Y. (2017). Ocean acidification and kelp development: reduced pH has no negative effects on meiospore germination and gametophyte development of Macrocystis pyrifera and Undaria pinnatifida. Journal of Phycology 53(3): 557-566.
Lee, J.-A., Sunwoo, Y.-I., Lee, H.-J., Park, I.-H. & Chung, I.-K. ("1990 '1989'"). The effects of copper on the early stages of Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) under temperature-irradiance gradienty. Korean Journal of Phycology 4(1): 41-53, 4 figs, 4 tables.
Lee, J.C., Soh, W.Y. & Lee, J.H. (1995). Effects of plant growth regulators on growth in the various explants of Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey)Suringar. Korean Journal of Phycology 10(1): 51-57, 4 figs, 8 tables. [in Korean]
Lee, K.Y. & Sohn, C.H. (1993). Morphological characteristics and growth of two forms of sea mustard, Undaria pinnatifida f. distans and U. pinnatifida f. typica. J. Aquaculture 6: 71-87.
Lee, Y.K., Lim, D.-J., Lee, Y.-H. & Park, Y.-I. (2006). Variation in fucoidan contents and monosaccharide compositions of Korean Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Phaeophyta. Algae 21(1): 157-160, 4 figs, 2 figs.
Leliaert, F., Kerckhof, F. & Coppejans, E. (2000). Eerste waarnemingen van Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) en de epifyt Pterothamnion plumula (Ellis) Nägeli (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) in Noord Frankrijk en België. Dumortiera 75: 5-10.
Matsumura, W., Yasui, H. & Yamamoto, H. (2001). Successful sporophyte regeneration from protoplasts of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 40: 10-20.
Minchin, D. & Nunn, J. (2014). The invasive brown alga Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar, 1873 (Laminariales: Alariaceae), spreads northwards in Europe. BioInvasions Records 3(2): 57-63.
Morita, T., Kurashima, A. & Maegawa, M. (2003). Temperature requirements for the growth and maturation of the gametophytes of Undaria pinnatifida and U. undarioides (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 51(4): 154-160.
Morita, T., Kurashima, A. & Maegawa, M. (2003). Temperature requirements for the growth of young sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida and Undaria undarioides (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae). Phycological Research 51(3): 266-270.
Oh, S.-H. & Koh, C.-H. (1996). Growth and photosynthesis of Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) on a cultivation ground in Korea. Botanica Marina 39: 389-393.
Pang, S. & Wu, C.Y. (1996). Study on gametophyte vegetative growth of Undaria pinnatifida and its application. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 14(3): 205-210.
Pang, S.J., Shan, T.F. & Zhang, Z.H. (2008). Responses of vegetative gametophytes of Undaria pinnatifida to high irradiance in the process of gametogenesis. Phycological Research 56(4): 280-287.
Park, C.S., Park, K.Y., Baek, J.M. & Hwang, E.K. (2009). The occurrence of pinhole disease in relation to developmental stage in cultivated Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar (Phaeophyta) in Korea. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 35-40, 5 figs, 1 table.
Pérez, R., Lee, J.Y. & Juge, C. (1981). Observations sur la Biologie de l'algue japonaise Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar introduite accidentellement dans l'étang de Thau. Science et Pêche, Bulletin Institute Pêches maritimes 315: 1-12.
Pérez-Cirera, J.L., Salinas, J.M., Cremades, J., Bárbara, J., Granja, A., Veiga, A.J. & Fuertes, C. (1997). Cultivo de Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) en Galicia. Nova Acta Cientifica Compostelana (Bioloxía) 7: 3-28.
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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 October 2021.

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