162,437 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,763 images, 64,017 bibliographic items, 475,067 distributional records.

Gonyaulax polyedra F.Stein 1883

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Gonyaulacaceae
Genus Gonyaulax


Publication details
Gonyaulax polyedra F.Stein 1883: 13, pl. IV [4]: figs 7-9

Published in: Stein, F. (1883). Die naturgeschichte der arthrodelen Flagellaten. In: Der Organismus der Infusionstiere. III. Pt. 2. ( Eds), pp. 1-30. Leipzig:

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Gonyaulax is Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Lingulodinium polyedra (F.Stein) J.D.Dodge

Type information
Type locality: Baltic Sea, off Germany. Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Fjord, probably late summer 1879 (Tillmann & al. 2021: [14]). Notes: lectotype, designated by Tillmann & al (2021: 14) [illustration] pl. IV 8! in Stein (1883); epitype, designated by Tillmann & al (2021: 14) for the lectotype they designated: Baltic Sea, off Germany. Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Fjord, 9th September 2019: [SEM stub] U. Tillmann, M. Gottschling & H. Gu [U. Tillmann K3-G8] s.n. (CEDiT2020E108!). Formol-fixed material is also available (CEDit2020RM109).

Origin of species name
Noun (Greek), Gr. poly, many; Gr. hedra, f. seat, chair, base, plane, side (Brown 1954).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Hystrichosphaeridium machaerophorum Deflandre & Cookson 1955

Nomenclatural notes
INA notes that this name is "subnudum" indicating that very little description is provided. However, the name is valid when the description [p. 13], the figure legends and illustrations on pl. IV are taken together. - (13 Jun 2016) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Source of current name
Dodge, J.D. (1989). Some revisions of the family Gonyaulacaceae (Dinophyceae) based on a scanning electron microscope study. Botanica Marina 32: 275-298, 42 figs, 2 tables.

Key references
Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Schiller, J. (1935). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. X. Band, 3. Abt. 2 Teil. ( Eds), pp. 1-320. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H..

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 05 March 2021 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3066 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Balzer, I. & Hardeland, R. (1991). Circadian rhythmicity in the stimulation of bioluminescence by biogenic amines and MAO inhibitors in Gonyaulax polyedra. Int. J. Biometeorol. 34(4): 231-234.
DeSa, R. & Hastings, J.W. (1968). The charaterization of scintillons. Bioluminescent particles from the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra. Journal of General Physiology 51: 105-122.
Dürr, G. & Netzel, H. (1974). The fine structure of the cell surface in Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinoflagellata). Cell Tiss. Res. 150: 21-41.
Dürr, G. (1979). Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen am Panzer von Dinoflagellaten I. Gonyaulax polyedra. Archiv für Protistenkunde 122: 55-87.
Fritz, L., Milos, P., Morse, D. & Hastings, J.W. (1991). In situ hybridization of luciferin-binding protein anti-sense RNA to thin sections of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra. Journal of Phycology 27: 436-441.
Fritz, L., Stringher, C.G. & Colepicolo, P. (1996). Immunolocalization of nitrate reductase in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra (Pyrrophyta) (Note). Journal of Phycology 32: 632-637, 6 figs.
Gaudsmith, J.T. & Dawes, C.J. (1972). The ultrastructure of several dinoflagellates with emphasis on Gonyaulax polyedra Stein and Gonyaulax monilata. Phycologia 11: 123-132.
Harrison, W.G. (1976). Nitrate metabolism of the red tide dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra Stein. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 21: 199-209.
Hastings, J.W. & Sweeney, B.M. (1957). The luminescent reaction in extracts of the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra. J. Cell Comp. Physiol. 49: 209-226.
Hastings, J.W. & Sweeney, B.M. (1958). A persistent diurnal rhythm of luminescence in a Gonyaulax polyedra. Biol. Bull. 115: 440-458.
Haxo, F.T. & Sweeney, B. (1955). Bioluminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra. pp. 415-420. Washington: Am. Ass. Adv. Sci..
Herman, E.M. & Sweeney, B.M. (1975). Circadian rhythm of chloroplast ultrastructure in Gonyaulax polyedra, concentric organization around a central cluster of ribosomes. J. Ultrastr. Res. 50: 347-354.
Herman, E.M. & Sweeney, B.M. (1979). Note: Morphological variability of mitochondrial fine structure in cultured Gonyaulax polyedra (Pyrrhophyta). Journal of Phycology 15: 333-336, 4 figs.
Knoetzel, J. & Rensing, L. (1990). Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus from the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra .1. Pigment and polypeptide composition of the pigment-protein complexes. J PLANT PHY 136(3): 271-279.
Knoetzel, J. & Rensing, L. (1990). Characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus from the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra .2. Circadian rhythmicity of photosynthesis and the supramolecular organization of pigment-protein complexes. J PLANT PHY 136(3): 280-288.
Lee, D.-H., Kim, J.-S. & Kim, S.-Y. (1998). Preparation of intact chromosomal DNA from Gonyaulax polyedra cells ruptured in hypo-osmotic solution for PFGE analysis. Algae 13(1): 135-141, 7 figs, 1 table.
Lewis, J. & Burton, P. (1988). A study of newly excysted cells of Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinophyceae) by electron microscopy. British Phycological Journal 23: 49-60, 23 figs.
Lewis, J.M. & Burton, P.D. (1987). A study of newly excysted cells of Gonyaulax polyedra Stein (Dinophyceae) by electron microscopy. British Phycological Journal 22: 307.
McMurry, L. & Hastings, J.W. (1972). No desynchronization among four circadian rhythms in the unicellular alga, Gonyaulax polyedra.. Science [USA] 175: 1137-1139. [in English]
Meeson, B.W. & Sweeney, B.M. (1982). Adaptation of Ceratium furca and Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinophyceae) to different temperatures and irradiances: growth rates and cell volumes. Journal of Phycology 18: 241-245, 2 figs, 1 table.
Nicolas, M.T., Morse, D., Bassot, J.M. & Hastings, J.W. (1991). Colocalization of luciferin binding protein and luciferase to the scintillons of Gonyaulax polyedra revealed by double immunolabeling after fast-freeze fixation. Protoplasma 160(2-3): 159-166.
Patton, S., Chandler, P.T., Kalan, E.B., Loeblich, III, A.R., Fuller, G. & Benson, A.A. (1967). Food value of red tide (Gonyaulax polyedra). Science 158(3802): 789-790. [in English]
Patton, S., Fuller, G., Loeblich, III, A.R. & Benson, A.A. (1966). Fatty acids of the "red tide" organism, Gonyaulax polyedra. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 116: 577-579. [in English]
Schmitter, R.E. (1971). The fine structure of Gonyaulax polyedra, a bioluminescent dinoflagellate. J. Cell Sc. 9: 147-173. [in English]
Sweeney, B.M. & Hastings, J.W. (1957). Characteristics of the diurnal rhythm of luminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra. J. Cell. Com. Physiol. 49: 115-128.
Sweeney, B.M. & Hastings, J.W. (1958). Rhythmic cell division in populations of Gonyaulax polyedra. Journal of Protozoology 5: 217-224.
Sweeney, B.M. (1981). Freeze-fractured chloroplast membranes of Gonyaulax polyedra (Pyrrhophyta). Journal of Phycology 17: 95-101, 7 figs, 1 table.
Sweeney, B.M., Haxo, F.T. & Hastings, J.W. (1959). Action spectra for two effects of light on luminescence in Gonyaulax polyedra. Journal of General Physiology 43: 285-299.
Thomas, W.H. & Gibson, C.H. (1990). Quantified small-scale turbulence inhibits a red tide dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra Stein. Deep-Sea Res Pt A-Oceanog Res 37(10): 1583-1593.
Thomas, W.H., Lear, D.W., Jr & Haxo, F.T. (1962). Uptake by the marine dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax polyedra, of radioactivity formed during an underwater nuclear test. Limnology and Oceanography 7: lxvi-lxxi.
Thomas, W.H., Vernet, M. & Gibson, C.H. (1995). Effects of small-scale turbulence on photosynthesis, pigmentation, cell division, and cell size in the marine dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 31: 50-59, 4 figs, 6 tables.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 02 August 2021.

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