163,902 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,101 bibliographic items, 483,547 distributional records.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Nemaliophycidae
Order Nemaliales
Suborder Galaxaurineae
Family Galaxauraceae
Genus Galaxaura


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Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Okha, Devbhoomi Dwarka district, Gujarat state, India. 11 Jul 2019. Haresh Kalasariya (hareshahir22@gmail.com). © Haresh Kalasariya.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Funchal, Madeira. 17 Jan 2019. Pedro Neves. © Pedro Neves (nevesdiver@gmail.com).

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
en su hábitat natural, en la zona Habana-Matanzas, sobre sustrato rocoso. Foto: Ángel Fernández.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; sporophyte; scale is 5 mm. 01 Jul 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; sporophyte, whorls of surface filaments; scale 1 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; gametophyte; scale is 5 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; close up of gametophyte with smooth surface; scale 1 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Scott Reef, Western Australia. 25 May 2011. John Huisman. © John Huisman (j.huisman@murdoch.edu.au).

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Lord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Panama. Tetrasporophyte — Habit showing irregular dichotomous branching.. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

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Trachelomonas pulcherrima Playfair

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux en su hábitat natural, en la zona Habana-Matanzas, sobre sustrato rocoso. Foto: Ángel Fernández

Publication details
Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816: 263

Published in: Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1816). Histoire des polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés zoophytes. pp. [i]-lxxxiv, chart, [1]-560, [560, err], pls I-XIX, uncol. by author. Caen: De l'imprimerie de F. Poisson.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Galaxaura.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Corallina rugosa J.Ellis & Solander

Type information
Type locality: Jamaica (Ellis & Solander 1786: 115). Notes: South & Skelton (2003: 720) mistakenly cite the Bahamas as the type locality

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), wrinkled.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Corallina rugosa J.Ellis & Solander 1786
Dichotomaria rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816
Dichotomaria rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816
Halysium rugosum (Ellis & Solander) Kützing 1843

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Corallina lapidescens Ellis & Solander 1786
Corallina lichenoides Ellis & Solander 1786
Galaxaura lapidescens (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816
Galaxaura annulata J.V.Lamouroux 1816
Dichotomaria lapidescens (J.Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816
Galaxaura lichenoides (Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816
Digenea dichotoma Audouin 1828
Dichotomaria lichenoides (Ellis & Solander) Blainville 1830
Alysium lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Kützing 1843
Spongotrichum dichotomum Kützing 1847
Holonema liebmannii Areschoug 1854
Microthoe lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Harvey 1855
Galaxaura plicata Kützing 1858
Galaxaura tomentosa Kützing 1858
Microthoe tomentosa (Kützing) Montagne & Millardet 1862
Galaxaura lapidescens var. tomentosa (Kützing) J.Agardh 1876
Galaxaura lapidescens var. annuligera Piccone & Grunow 1884
Galaxaura collabens J.Agardh 1885
Actinotrichia lapidescens Vickers 1897
Galaxaura cuculligera Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura delabida Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura comans Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura flagelliformis Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura squalida Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura rudis Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura liebmannii (Areschoug) Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura ramulosa Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura coarctata Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura intricata Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura rugosa var. annulata (J.V.Lamouroux) Piccone 1901
Galaxaura subfruticulosa R.Chou 1945
Galaxaura mauritiana Børgesen 1949

Taxonomic notes
According to Silva et al. (1996), the name Galaxaura obtusata was misapplied to this species by Wynne (1995: 299). John et al. (2004) cite Actinotrichia lapidescens F. Schmitz and Galaxaura coarctata Kjellmann as synonyms of this species.

Distributional notes
This species was introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 161) via the Suez Canal, being first reported from Syria prior to 1990. It is now widespread on the Levantine coast. - (5 Nov 2015) - M.D. Guiry

Habitat notes
Widespread in warm seas; 3 m depth at Entedebir Island (Lipkin & Silva 2002). - (28 May 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

According to Wang et al. (2005: 693), plants usually grew on rocky substrata from 0-10 m depths, although they were sometimes attached to the tubes o f polychaete worms.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Alongi, G. (2017). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Rhodophyta (Rhodymeniophycidae escluse). Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 50(380): 1-391, 53 pls.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Desikachary, T.V., Balakrishnan, M.S. & Krishnamurthy, V. (1990). Florideophycidae Palmariales - Gelidiales. In: Rhodophyta. II. Taxonomy part. Part IIA. (Desikachary, T.V., Krishnamurthy, V. & Balakrishnan, M.S. Eds), pp. 47-214. Madras, India: Madras Science Foundation.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Hwang, I.-K. & Kim, H.-S. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 2. Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae, Nemaliophycidae: Acrochaetiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales, Nemaliales. Nemalian red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-111, figs 1-66. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

N'Yeurt, A.D.R. & Payri, C.E. (2010). Marine algal flora of French Polynesia III. Rhodophyta, with additions to the Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyta. Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 3-205.

Papenfuss, G.F., Mshigeni, K.E. & Chiang, Y.M. (1982). Revision of the red algal genus Galaxaura with special reference to the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean. Botanica Marina 25: 401-444, 46 figs.

Santos, C.N., Pestana, C.M.S., Santos, C.S., Casano, V. & Nunes, J.M.C. (2020). Diversity of Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) in northeastern Brazil: new record and two new species, Dichotomaria viridis sp. nov. and Tricleocarpa laxa sp. nov. Phytotaxa 454(2): 73-103, 8 figs, 4 tables.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Thida Nyunt & Soe-Htun, U. (2014). A revision on morphotaxonomy and phytogeographical distribution of the genus Galaxaura Lamouroux (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from Myanmar. Mawlamyine University Research Journal 5(1): [1-11].

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photographs and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Wang, W.-L., Liu, S.-L. & Lin, S.-M. (2005). Systematics of the calcified genera of the Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) with an emphasis on Taiwan species. Journal of Phycology 41: 685-703.

Created: 29 December 1997 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 June 2021 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 14678 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Ambiye, V. & Untawale, A.G. (1991). Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis et Sol.) Lamour. from India. Seaweed Research and Utilisation 13: 97-100, 5 figs.
Hoffman, R., Israel, A., Lipkin, Y., Dubinsky, Z. & Iluz, D. (2008). First record of two seaweeds from the Israeli Mediterranean: Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta) and Codium adhaerens C. Agardh (Rhodophyta). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 56: 123-126.
Huisman, J.M., Sherwood, A.R. & Abbott, I.A. (2004). Studies of Hawaiian Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta): Large subunit rDNA gene sequences support conspecificity of Galaxaura rugosa and G. subverticillata. Cryptogamie Algologie 25: 337-352.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 23 October 2021.

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