163,335 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,769 images, 62,932 bibliographic items, 478,463 distributional records.

Species References

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Amitage, C.S. & Sjøtun, K. (2016). Codium fragile in Norway: subspecies identity and morphology. Botanica Marina 59(6): 439-450, 5 fig..
Armitage, C.S., Sjotun, K. & Jensen, K,H. (2014). Correlative evidence for competition between Fucus serratus and the introduced chlorophyte Codium fragile subsp. fragilie on the southwest coast of Norway. Botanica Marina 57(2): 85-97.
Armitage, P.R., Nelson, W.A. & Sutherland, J.E. (2017). Mismatch of morphological and molecular identifications in native and invasive subspecies of Codium fragile (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 218-229, 7 figs, 2 tables.
Bégin, C. & Scheibling, R.E. (2003). Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. Botanica Marina 46: 404-412.
Ben-Avraham, Z. (1971). Acccumulation of stones on beaches by Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography 16(3): 553-554, 1 fig.
Blunden, G., Fletcher, R.L., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). An unusual growth form of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subspecies tomentosoides (Goor) Silva found on floating structures in the Solent. British Phycological Journal 24: 299.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Mitosis and mitotic activity in Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 8: 149-155.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Reproduction and early development on Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot: Chlorophyceae. Phycologia 8: 91-99.
Bulleri, F., Branca, M.G., Abbiati, M. & Airoldi, L. (2007). Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. in the northern Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 137-144, 4 Figs, 2 Tables.
Campbell, S.J. (1999). Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 35: 938-940, 1 fig.
Carlton, J.T. & Scanlon, J.A. (1985). Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Botanica Marina 28: 155-165.
Chapman, A.S. (1999). From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 277-289.
Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.
Churchill, A.C. & Moeller, H.W. (1972). Seasonal patterns of reproduction in New York. Population of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva.. Journal of Phycology 8: 147-152.
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Cuesta Moliner, C. (2006). Macroalgas invasoras del Principado de Asturias: situación actual de Codium fragile. In: (GEIB: Grupo Especialista en Investigaciones Biológicas, eds.) Resúmenes del II Congreso Nacional sobre Especies Exóticas Invasoras, León, p. 71. ( Eds)
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Rico Ordás, J.M. (2007). Distribución, crecimiento y fenología del alga invasora Codium fragile y su congénere nativa Codium tomentosum. In: (Real Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, eds.) I Congreso de Estudios Asturianos (2006) Tomo VI. Comisión de Ciencias de la Naturaleza y Tecnología, Oviedo, pp. 145-161. ( Eds)
Delgado, A. & Duville, C.A. (1977). Estudio de la composición química de Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyta) en Pto. Deseado (Prov. de Santa Cruz, Argentina). Contribución Técnica CIBIMA 31: 9.
Dromgoole, F.I. (1975). Occurrence of Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 257-264.
Drouin, A., McKindsey, C. & Johnson, L. (2011). Detecting the impacts of notorious invaders: experiments versus observations in the invasion of eelgrass meadows by the green seaweed Codium fragile. Oecología : .
Feldmann, J. (1956). Sur la parthénogénèse du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot dans la Méditerranée. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 243: 305-307.
Fletcher, R.L., Blunden, G., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). Occurrence of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Codiales). J Appl Phycol 1: 227-237.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1972). Winter fragmentation of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Siphonales) in New England. Phycologia 11: 67-70.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1973). Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, USA. Marine Biology, Berlin 19(2): 127-132. [in English]
Furnari, G. (1974). Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in the Lake Faro (Messina). Mem Biol Marina e Oceanogr 4: 193-199.
Furnari, G. (1974). Segnalazione di Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot nel lago di Faro (Messina). Mem. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 4: 193-199.
Garbary, D.J., Vandermeulen, H. & Kim, K.Y. (1997). Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) Invades the Gulf of St Lawrence , Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 40: 537-540.
Griffin, R.L., Rogers, D.J., Spencer-Phillips, P.T. & Swain, L. (1995). Lectin from Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides conjugated to colloidal gold: a new histochemical reagent.. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 52: 225-227.
Hanisak, M. D. (1979). Growth patterns of Codium fragile ssp, tomentosoides in response to temperature, irradiance, salinity, and nitrogen source. . Mar. Biol. 50(4): 319-332.
Hanisak, M. D. (1979). Nitrogen limitation of Codium fragile ssp, tomentosoides as determined by tissue analysis. . Mar. Biol. 50(4): 333-337.
Hanisak, M.D. & Harlin, M.M. (1978). Uptake of inorganic nitrogen by Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 450-454, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Hanisak, M.D. (1979). Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on growth of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 15: 124-127.
Hedberg, M.F., Huang, Y.-S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1981). Size of the chloroplast genome in Codium fragile. Science 213: 445-447.
Hewad, W.D. & Carpenter, E.J. (1975). Nitrogen fixation associated with the marine macroalga Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography 20: 815-823.
Hubbard, C.B. & Garbary, D.J. (2002). Morphological variation of Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) in Eastern Canada. Botanica Marina 45: 476-485.
Hwang, E.K., Baek, J.M. & Park, C.S. (2009). Cultivation of the green alga, Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, by artificial seed production in Korea. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 19-25, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Jónsson, S. & Gunnarsson, K. (1975). La presence du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot en Islande et son extension dans l'Atlantique Nord. Nova Hedwigia 26: 725-732.
Jurd, K.M., Rogers, D.J., Blunden, G. & McLellan, D.S. (1995). Anticoagulant properties of sulphated polysaccharides and a proteoglycan from Codium fragile ssp. atlanticum. J. Appl. Phycol. 7: 339-345.
Kadokami, K., Yoshida, N., Mizusaki, K., Noda, K. & Makisumi, S. (1990). Some properties of trypsin-like proteases extracted from the seaweed Codium fragile and their purification. Marine Biology, Berlin 107(3): 513-517.
Kim, K.Y. & Garbary, D.J. (2007). Photosynthesis in Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) from a Nova Scotia estuary: responses to desiccation and hyposalinity . Marine Biology, Berlin 151: 99-107.
Kusakina, J., Snyder, M., Kristie, D.N. & Dadswell, M.J. (2006). Morphological and molecular evidence for multiple invasions of Codium fragile in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 49: 1-9.
Lassen, C., Bebout, L.E., Paerl, H.W. & Jørgensen, B.B. (1994). Microsensor studies of oxygen and light distribution in the green macroalga Codium fragile. Journal of Phycology 30: 381-386, 7 figs.
Loveless, R.W. & Rogers, D.J. (1985). Biochemical studies on the lectins from subspecies of Codium fragile. British Phycological Journal 20: 188.
Malinowski, K.C. & Ramus, J. (1973). Growth of the green alga Codium fragile in a Connecticut estuary. Journal of Phycology 9: 102-110.
Manhart, J.R. & VonderHaar, R.A. (1991). Intron revealed by nucleotide sequence of large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Codium fragile (Chlorophyta): phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Phycology 27: 613-617, 3 figs.
Matheson, K., McKenzie, C.H., Sargent, P.S., Hurley, M. & Wells, T. (2014). Northward expansion of the invasive green algae Codium fragile spp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 into coastal waterd of Newfoundland, Canada. Bioinvasions Rec. 3: 151-158.
Mathieson, A.C., Dawes, C.J., Harris, L.G. & Hehre, E.J. (2003). Expansion of the Asiatic green alga Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of Maine. Rhodora 105(921): 1-53.
Meslin, R. (1954). Sur la naturalisation du Codium fragile (Suring.) Hariot et son extension aux côtes de Normandie. Bull. Lab. Mar. Dinard 49-50: 110-117.
Miravalles, A.B., Leonardi, P.I. & Cáceres, E.J. (2011). Male gametogenesis ultrastructure of Codium fragile subsp. novae-zelandiae (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 50(4): 370-378.
Ortiz, J., Uquiche, E., Robert, P., Romero, N., Quitral, N., & Llantén, C. (2009). Functional and nutritional value of the Chilean seaweeds Codium fragile, Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 111: 320-?.
Park, C.S. & Sohn, C.H. (1992). Effects of light and temperature on morphogenesis of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in laboratory culture. Korean Journal of Phycology 7(2): 213-223, 10 figs, 1 table. [in Korean]
Prince, J.S. (1988). Sexual reproduction in Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) from the northeast coast of North America. Journal of Phycology 24: 112-114.
Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2008). Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.
Ramus, J. (1972). Differentiation of the green alga Codium fragile. American Journal of Botany 59: 478-482.
Raven, J.A. & Osmond, C.B. (1990). Bicarbonate use in photosynthesis by brown macroalgae and Codium fragile from North Carolina. British Phycological Journal 25: 94.
Ricketts, T.R. (1971). The structures of siphonein and siphonoxanthin from Codium fragile. Phytochemistry 10: 155-160.
Rogers, D.J. & Loveless, R.W. (1985). Receptor-specificity differences in the lectins from subspecies of Codium fragile. British Phycological Journal 20: 190-191.
Rogers, D.J., Jurd, K., Blunden, G., Zanetti, F. & Paoletti, S. (1990). Anticoagulant activity in extracts of the green alga Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum. British Phycological Journal 25: 96.
Scheibling, R.E. & Melady, R.A. (2008). Effect of water movement and substratum type on vegetative recruitment of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Botanica Marina 51: 341-349.
Schmidt, A.L. & Scheibling, R.E. (2006). A comparison of epifauna and epiphytes on native kelps (Laminaria species) and an invasive alga (Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides) in Nova Scotia, Canada.. Botanica Marina 49: 315-330.
Searles, R.B., Hommersand, M.H. & Amsler, C.D. (1984). The occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides and C. taylorii (Chlorophyta) in North Carolina. Botanica Marina 27: 185-187.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1995). Establishment of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides on New Zealand rocky shores: current distribution and invertebrate grazers. Journal of Ecology 83: 949-965.
Trowbridge, C.D. (1998). Ecology of the green macroalga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: invasive and non-invasive subspecies. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 36: 1-64.
Trowbridge, C.D. (2001). Coexistence of introduced and native congeneric algae: Codium fragile and C. tomentosum on Irish rocky intertidal shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 931-937.
Verbruggen, H., Brookes, M.J.L. & Costa, J.F. (2016). DNA barcodes and morphometric data indicate that Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) may consist of two species. Phycologia 56(1): 54-62.
Wassman, E.R. & Ramus, J. (1973). Primary-production measurements for the green seaweed Codium fragile in Long Island Sound. Marine Biology, Berlin 21: 289-297.
Williams, M.L. & Cobb, A.H. (1985). Effects of irradiance and light quality on starch synthesis by isolated chloroplasts of Codium fragile. New Phytologist 101: 79-88.
Yotsui, T. & Migita, S. (1989). Cultivation of a green alga Codium fragile by regeneration of medullary threads. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55: 41-44.
Yu, S. & Pedersén, M. (1989). Light/DTT-activated fructose bisphosphatase in isolated chloroplasts from the marine green macroalga Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot. Botanica Marina 32: 79-84.

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