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Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Ceramiales
Family Rhodomelaceae
Tribe Polysiphonieae
Genus Polysiphonia

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Ría de Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 12 Feb 2012. M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie). © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. 12 Feb 2012. M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie). © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Polysiphonia elongata?; Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland" 2#62. 03 Apr 2011. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Ría de Vivero, Galicia, Spain, 2006; TS showing axial and periaxial cells with cortex. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel
Spain; transverse section showing pericentrals. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Herpothamnion flaccidum (J.D.Hooker & Harvey) Nägeli

Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland
© M.D. Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie)

Publication details
Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel 1827: 349

Published in: Sprengel, K.[P.J.] (1827). Systema vegetabilium Editio decima sexta. Voluminis IV. Pars I. Classis 24. Vol. 4 pp. [i]-iv, [1]-592. Gottingae [Göttingen]: sumtibus Librariae Dieterichianae.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Polysiphonia is Polysiphonia urceolata (Lightfoot ex Dillwyn) Greville.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Carradoriella elongata (Hudson) A.M.Savoie & G.W.Saunders

Basionym
Conferva elongata Hudson

Type information
Type locality: "Habitat in littoribus marinis frequens." [England] (Hudson 1762: 484). Lectotype: BM-K (Maggs & Hommersand 1993: 327).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), elongated (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Polysiphonia elongata var. rosea (Greville) J.Agardh
Polysiphonia elongata var. arborescens (Kützing) Schiffner
Polysiphonia elongata var. robusta (Kützing) Schiffner
Polysiphonia elongata var. ruchingeri (C.Agardh) Schiffner
Polysiphonia elongata var. stenocarpa (Kützing) Schiffner
Hutchinsia elongata var. prolifera C.Agardh 1817
Hutchinsia elongata var. denudata C.Agardh 1828
Polysiphonia elongata var. denudata Harvey 1833
Polysiphonia elongata var. sanguinolenta (C.Agardh) Harvey 1833
Polysiphonia elongata var. denudata (C.Agardh) Zanardini 1841
Ceramium elongatum var. denudatum (C.Agardh) Oersted 1844
Ceramium elongatum var. proliferum (C.Agardh) Oersted 1844
Polysiphonia elongata f. lyngbyei (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1863
Polysiphonia elongata f. microdendron (J.Agardh) Kjellman 1880
Polysiphonia elongata f. denudata (C.Agardh) Batters 1890
Polysiphonia elongata var. microdendron (J.Agardh) Gran 1897
Polysiphonia elongata f. nana Gran 1897
Polysiphonia elongata f. glomerata Gran 1897
Polysiphonia elongata f. gelatinosa Kylin 1907
Polysiphonia elongata f. schuebeleri (Foslie) Rosenvinge 1924
Polysiphonia elongata f. gelatinosa (Kylin) Kylin 1944

Distributional notes
Western Mediterranean, temperate waters of Europe from Portugal to Norway, and the Atlantic coast of North America from New England to Prince Edward Is. (Kapraun & Rueness, 1983). - (6 Mar 2019) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel)
English: Lobster Horns (Dickinson 1963), Elongate Siphon Weed (Bunker et al. 2010).

Swedish: Grovslick (Tolstoy & Österlund 2003).

Description
Cartilaginous, cylindrical, dark reddish brown fronds, to 300 mm long, with crimson ramuli, from discoid base. Branches alternate to pseudodichotomous, densely clothed in spring with gelatinous, ephemeral ramuli, tapered at base and apex. Small cental siphon with 4 large primary pericentral siphons, 4 alternating secondary pericentral siphons, and in older parts 8 tertiary pericentral siphons and a zone of corticating cells. Articulations barely visible in corticated parts, rather broader than long near base, to longer than broad in ramuli.

Habitat
On stones and shells, open sandy and gravelly substrates, intertidal to deepish subtidal, widely distributed, common, sometimes washed ashore in quantity.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Polysiphonia elongata var. rosea (Greville) J.Agardh)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

(as Polysiphonia elongata (Hudson) Sprengel)
Arctic: Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen et al. 1999, Hop et al. 2012).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Curiel et al. 2012), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Balearic Islands (Rodríguez y Femenías 1889, Petersen 1918, Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Joher et al. 2012), Baltic Sea (Nielsen et al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Black Sea (Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Milchakova 2011), Britain (Newton 1931, Maggs & Hommersand 1993, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Brodie et al. 2016, Bunker et al. 2017), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981, Berov et al. 2012), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977, Coppejans 1979, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001), Crimea (Sadogurskiy, Belich & Sadogurskaya 2019), Denmark (Kapraun & Rueness 1983, Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1943, Augier, Boudouresque & Laborel 1971, Dubois 1972, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Diannelidis 1953, Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Athanasiadis 1987, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Christia et al. 2011, Tsiamis & Panoytidis 2016), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Adams 1908, Cotton 1912, Cullinane 1969, Cullinane 1971, Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra et al. 1979, Maggs 1983, Whelan & Cullinane 1985, Maggs & Hommersand 1993, Morton 1994, Choi, Kraft, Lee & Saunders 2002, Guiry 2012, Bunker et al. 2017), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Cecere et al. 1996, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002, Serio et al 2006), Malta (Cormaci et al. 1997), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga et al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Kapraun & Rueness 1983, Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001, Husa, Steem & Sjøtun 2014), Portugal (Ardré 1970, Araújo et al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Sardinia (Gómez Garreta et al. 2001), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996), Spain (Méndez 1957, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Valenzuela & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Ballesteros 1983, Gallardo et al. 1985, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Conde et al. 1996, Conde, Altamirano & Flores-Moya 1996, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Valenzuela Miranda 2002, Gorostiaga et al., 2004, Bárbara et al. 2004, Bárbara et al. 2005, Bárbara et al. 2006, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2010, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016), Spitsbergen (Vinogradova 1995), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1944), Turkey (Europe) (Güven & Öztig 1971, Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Parente), Bermuda (Schneider 2003 ), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980, Lawson et al. 1995, Haroun et al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Faroe Islands (Kapraun & Rueness 1983), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, John et al. 2004).

North America: Connecticut (CT) (Schneider, Suyemoto & Yarish 1979), New Hampshire (HN) (Mathieson & Hehre 1986).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930 ).

Africa: Algeria (Gómez Garreta et al. 2001), Angola (John et al. 2004), Egypt (Aleem 1993, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001), Libya (Gómez Garreta et al. 2001), Morocco (Gómez Garreta et al. 2001, Moussa et al. 2018), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Gómez Garreta et al. 2001).

South-west Asia: Cyprus (Taskin et al. 2013, Tsiamis et al. 2014), Israel (Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Levant states (Gómez Garreta et al. 2001), Pakistan (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Turkey (Asia) (Taskin et al. 2008 ).

Asia: Japan (Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015).

(as Polysiphonia elongata var. denudata Harvey)
Europe: Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Romania (Caraus 2002).

(as Polysiphonia elongata var. microdendron (J.Agardh) Gran)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1944).

(as Polysiphonia elongata f. gelatinosa Kylin)
Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1944).

(as Polysiphonia elongata f. schuebeleri (Foslie) Rosenvinge)
Atlantic Islands: Greenland (Pedersen 2011).

Asia: Japan (Yoshida 1998).

Source of current name
Savoie, A.M. & Saunders, G.W. (2018 '2019'). A molecular assessment of species diversity and generic boundaries in the red algal tribes Polysiphonieae and Streblocladieae (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) in Canada. European Journal of Phycology 54(1): 1-25.

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. II. pp. [2], 763-1504. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Kapraun, D.F. & Rueness, J. (1983). The genus Polysiphonia (Ceramiales, Rhodomelaceae) in Scandinavia. Giornale Botanico Italiano 117: 1-30.

Larsen, A. & Sand-Jensen, K. (2005). Salt tolerance and distribution of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area. Phycologia 45: 13-23.

Maggs, C.A. & Hommersand, M.H. (1993). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 1. Rhodophyta. Part 3A. Ceramiales. pp. [i]-xv, 1-444, 129 figs, map. London: HMSO.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, CIX pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Serio, D., Alongi, G., Catra, M., Cormaci, M. & Furnari, G. (2006). Changes in the benthic algal flora of Linosa Island (Straits of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea). Botanica Marina 49: 135-144.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 06 March 2019 by Wendy Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 16810 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Lichtlé, C. (1975). Étude ultrastructurale de la paroi du Polysiphonia elongata (Harv.) Rhodophycée, Floriodée, a l'aide d'actions ménagées d'enzymes. J. Micros. Biol. Cell. 23: 93-104.
Pedersén, M., Roomans, G.M. & Hofsten, A.V. (1980). Cell inclusions containing bromine in Rhodomela confervoides (Huds.) Lamour. and Polysiphonia elongata Harv. (Rhodophyta; Ceramiales). Phycologia 19: 153-158, 6 figs.

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Cite this record as:
Wendy Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 November 2019.

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