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Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin 1841

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa
Subkingdom Eozoa
Infrakingdom Infrakingdom Euglenozoa
Phylum Euglenozoa
Infraphylum Dipilida
Class Euglenophyceae
Subclass Euglenophycidae
Order Euglenida
Family Phacidae
Genus Phacus

Pictures

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Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin
Poland, Warsaw, pond,18 August 2020. 28 Aug 2020. Bożena Zakryś. © Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl).

Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin
Poland, Warsaw, pond,18 August 2020. 28 Aug 2020. Bożena Zakryś. © Bożena Zakryś (zakrys@biol.uw.edu.pl).

Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin
Alcohol preserved. Collected by Luca Marazzi, Okavango Delta, Botswana. 20 Mar 2011. © C.F.Carter (chris.Carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com.

 

Eunotia praerupta var. bigibba (Kützing) Grunow

Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin Alcohol preserved. Collected by Luca Marazzi, Okavango Delta, Botswana
© C.F.Carter (chris.Carter'at'6cvw.freeuk.com

Publication details
Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin 1841: 337, pl. 5 fig. 6

Published in: Dujardin, F. (1841). Histoire naturelle des Zoophytes, Infusoires, comprenant la physiologie et la clasification de ces animaux et la manière de les étudier à l'aide du microscope. pp. i-xii, 1-684. Paris: Librarie Encyclopédique de Roret.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Phacus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Euglena longicauda Ehrenberg

Type information
Type locality: Berlin (Index Nominum Algarum). Lectotype: drawing 550a image (Ecdraw 550) from Ehrenberg's Collection : Fig. 3d ; see below (epitype) (Lukomska-Kowalczyk et al. 2015: 1151). Notes: Representative DNA sequence: GenBank KP944103. Representative locality: freshwater pond in Lazienki Park in Warsaw (52°12'47.8'N, 21°01'48.7"E).

Origin of species name
Noun (Latin), long-tail; noun in apposition.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Euglena longicauda Ehrenberg 1830

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Phacus pleuronectes var. insectus Koczwara 1915
Phacus longicauda var. major Svirenko 1915
Phacus longicauda var. insectus Koczwara 1917
Phacus longicauda subsp. insectus (Koczwara) Pochmann 1942
Phacus longicauda subsp. madagassicus Pochmann 1942
Phacus longicauda subsp. maior (Svirenko) Pochmann 1942
Phacus longicauda var. madagassicus (Pochmann) Huber-Pestalozzi 1955
Phacus longicauda f. insectus Huber-Pestalozzi 1955

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Description
Amended diagnosis (Lukomska-Kowalczyk et al, 2015: 1151).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Euglena longicauda Ehrenberg)
Europe: Georgia (Barinova & al. 2011, Barinova & Kukhaleishvili 2014), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016).

South-east Asia: Singapore (Pham & al. 2011).

(as Phacus longicauda (Ehrenberg) Dujardin)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Black Sea (BSPC Editorial Board 2014, Zotov 2018), Britain (Wołowski 2002, Whitton & al. 2003, John, Whitton & Brook 2011), Bulgaria (Dochin 2020), Czech Republic (Hasler, Handák & Handákova 2007), Georgia (Barinova & al. 2011, Barinova & Kukhaleishvili 2014), Germany (Mauch & Schmedtje 2003, Täuscher 2013, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016, Stutz & Mattern & al. 2018), Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015, Veen & al. 2015, Veen & al. 2015), Poland (Wołowski 1998, Wołowski & Kowalska 2009, Kokocinski & Soininen 2012, Zakrys et al. 2013, Lukomska-Kowalczyk et al. 2015), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016, Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Álvarez Cobelas 1982, Pérez, Comas & Maidana 2010), Sweden (Skuja 1948, Skuja 1956), Ukraine (Berezovska 2016, Berezovskaya 2019).

North America: Alabama (Wołowski, Poniewozik & Walne 2013), Arkansas (Smith 2010), Iowa (Allegre & Jahn 1943), Laurentian Great Lakes (Prescott 1962), Mexico (Figueroa-Torres & al. 2015), Mississippi (Wołowski, Poniewozik & Walne 2013), North Carolina (Wołowski, Poniewozik & Walne 2013), Québec (Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995), Tennessee (Wołowski, Poniewozik & Walne 2013).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Comas González 2009, Comas-González & al. 2017).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Brazil (Assis & al. 2018, De-Lamonica-Freire, Bicudo & De Castro 1992, De-Lamonica-Freire & Heckman 1996, Ferragut et al. 2005, Alves-da-Silva & Menezes 2010, Alves-da-Silva & Menezes 2010, Dunck & al. 2018, Araujo & Bicudo 2018), Uruguay (Rosset & al. 2020).

Africa: Sierra Leone (Alfinito 2011), Sudan (Reinhold 1937), Zaire (Golama Swana Kaketa 1996).

Middle East: Iraq (Maulood & al. 2013), Israel (Stupina & al. 2000, Barinova & Tavassi 2009), Turkey (Aysel 2005, Ersanli & Gönülol 2006, Varol & Sen 2014, Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed & al. 2009), India (Gupta 2012), Pakistan (Tariq-Ali et al. 2005).

South-east Asia: Myanmar (Burma) (Skuja 1949).

Asia: China (Hu & Wei 2006), Japan (Hirose, Yamagishi & Akiyama 1977), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Sakha (Yakutia) (Kopyrina, Pshennikova & Barinova 2020), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014), Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2015, Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018).

Australia and New Zealand: New South Wales (Day & al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000), New Zealand (Chapman, Thompson & Segar 1957), Northern Territory (Day & al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000), Queensland (Day & al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000), Victoria (Day & al. 1995, Ling & Tyler 2000).

(as Phacus longicauda var. major Svirenko)
Europe: Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Brazil (Alves-da-Silva & Menezes 2010).

Africa: Sierra Leone (Alfinito 2011).

Middle East: Turkey (Aysel 2005).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed & al. 2009), India (Gupta 2012).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phacus longicauda var. insectus Koczwara)
Europe: Czech Republic (Hasler, Handák & Handákova 2007), Germany (Täuscher 2016), Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985).

Africa: Zaire (Golama Swana Kaketa 1996).

Middle East: Israel (Barinova & Tavassi 2009), Turkey (Aysel 2005).

Asia: Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2015).

(as Phacus longicauda f. insectus Huber-Pestalozzi)
Europe: Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015).

South America: Brazil (Alves-da-Silva & Menezes 2010).

Middle East: Israel (Stupina & al. 2000).

South-west Asia: India (Gupta 2012).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Northern Territory (Day & al. 1995).

Key references
Allegre, C.F. & Jahn, T.L (1943). A survey of the genus Phacus Dujardin (Protozoa; Euglenoidina). . Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 62(3): 233-244.

Araujo, G.J.M. & Bicudo, C.E.M. (2018). Flora ficológica do Estado de São Paulo. Vol. 6. Euglenophyceae. pp. [i]-viii, [1]-203, plus 306 figs. São Paulo: TRiMa: FAPESP.

Bennett, M.S. & Triemer, R.E. (2012). A new method for obtaining nuclear gene sequences from field samples and taxonomic revisions of the photosynthetic euglenoids Lepocinclus (Euglena) helicoideus and Lepocinclis (Phacus) horridus (Euglenophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(1): 254-260.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Lemmermann, E. (1913). Flagellatae II. Eugleninae. In: Die Süsswasserflora Deutschlands, Österreichs und der Schweiz. Heft 2. (Pascher, A. & Lemmermann, E. Eds), pp. 115-174. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer.

Lukomska-Kowalczyk, M., Karnkowska, A., Milanowski, R., Lach, L. & Zakrysá, B. (2015). Delimiting species in the Phacus longicauda complex (Euglenida) through morphological and molecular analyses. Journal of Phycology 51(6): 1147-1157.

Marin, B., Palm, A., Klingberg, M. & Melkonian, M. (2003). Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rRNA secondary structure. Protist 154: 99-145, 7 figs, 9 tables.

Norris, R.E. (1984). Phytoplankton, including nanoplankton, in the Benguela upwelling system as revealed by electron microscopy. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 45: 139-167.

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Skuja, H. (1956). Taxonomische und biologische Studien über das Phytoplankton schwedischer Binnengewässer. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Series IV 16(3): 1-404, + 63 pls.

Starmach, K. (1983). Euglenophyta - Eugleniny Vol. 3 Flora slodkowodna polski [Euglenophyta Volume 3 Freshwater flora of Poland]. pp. [1]-594. Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. [in Polish]

Tariq-Ali, S., Masud-ul-Hasan & Shameel, M. (2005). Taxonomic study of the genus Phacus Dujardin (Euglenophyta) from Lahore and Sialkot districts of Pakistan. Int. J. Phycol. Phycochem. 1(2): 173-176.

Wołowski, K, & Hindák, F. (2005). Atlas of Euglenophytes. pp. [1]-136, 417 figs. Cracow: VEDA Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Wołowski, K. (1998). Taxonomic and environmental studies on euglenophytes of the Kraków-Czestochowa Upland (Southern Poland). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica Supplementum 6: 1-192, 29 pls.

Wołowski, K. (2011). Euglenophyta (Euglenoids). In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 181-239. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wołowski, K., Poniewozik, M. & Walne, P.L. (2013). Pigmented euglenophytes of the genera Euglena, Euglenaria, Lepocinclis, Phacus and Monomorphina from the southeastern United States. Polish Botanical Journal 58(2): 659-685.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 16 December 2020 by G.M. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 8342 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Lukomska-Kowalczyk, M., Karnkowska, A., Milanowski, R., Lach, L. & Zakrysá, B. (2015). Delimiting species in the Phacus longicauda complex (Euglenida) through morphological and molecular analyses. Journal of Phycology 51(6): 1147-1157.

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G.M. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 September 2021.

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