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Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon 1967

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Plocamiales
Family Plocamiaceae
Genus Plocamium


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Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon
Finavarra, Co. Clare, Ireland; apex of plant with secund branching. 08 Aug 2004. Michael Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon
Spain, Galicia, A Coruña, Ártabra, 2005, intertidal. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

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Mesogloia griffithsiana Greville

Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon Madeira
© Peter Wirtz (peterwirtz2004@yahoo.com )

Publication details
Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon 1967: 58

Published in: Dixon, P.S. (1967). The typification of Fucus cartilagineus L. and F. corneus Huds. Blumea 15: 55-62.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Plocamium is Plocamium vulgare J.V.Lamouroux.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Fucus cartilagineus Linnaeus

Type information
Type locality: "In Oceano australiore" (but probably northern Europe) (Silva & al. 1996: 340). Lectotype: L 910, 184...14 (Womersley 1994: 389). Notes: This type locality was first recorded by Dixon (1967: 55-57). Northern Europe (Womersley 1994: 389).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), cartilaginous, flexible but firm and tough (Stearn 1985).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus cartilagineus Linnaeus 1753
Gelidium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) Gaillon 1828

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus plocamium S.G.Gmelin 1768
Fucus coccineus Hudson 1778
Nereidea coccinea (Hudson) Stackhouse 1809
Plocamium vulgare J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Delesseria coccinea (Hudson) C.Agardh 1817
Plocamium coccineum Lyngbye 1819
Plocamium coccineum var. subtile Lyngbye 1819
Ellisius coccinea (Hudson) S.F.Gray 1821
Delesseria plocamium var. uncinata C.Agardh 1822
Delesseria plocamium C.Agardh 1822
Asperocaulon coccineum (Hudson) Greville 1824
Plocamium coccineum var. uncinatum (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1842
Plocamium coccineum var. subtile Kützing 1843
Plocamium pusillum Sonder 1845
Plocamium coccineum f. uncinatum (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1852
Plocamium angustum var. pusillum (Sonder) Harvey 1863
Plocamium subtile Kützing 1866
Plocamium uncinatum (C.Agardh) Kützing 1866
Plocamium coccineum f. binderianum (Kützing) Hauck 1883
Plocamium cartilagineum var. uncinatum (C.Agardh) Guiry ex Benhissoune et al. 2002
Plocamium cartilagineum var. uncinatum (C.Agardh) M.J.Wynne 2002

Taxonomic notes
The concept of Plocamium cartilagineum world-wide has been altered considerably by Saunders & Lehmkuhl (2005). It is clear from sequence data that reports of this essentially north-eastern Atlantic species, which occurs mainly in the subtidal and grows epiphytically on other species, are likely to represent other species of the genus. Even in the north-eastern Atlantic, the authors have shown that four species, namely P. cartilagineum sensu stricto, P. subtile (q.v.), P. nanum (q.v.) and P. maggsiae were passing under the name Plocamium cartilagineum. Many of the species called P. cartilagineum in the Pacific and Australasia represent different entities, some of which may be undescribed.

Distributional notes
Records for Denmark and Faeroe I. consist of drift material (Saunders & Lehmkuhl, 2005). - (22 Aug 2006) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Subtidal species (Cremades et al. 2011). - (30 Jun 2011) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Plocamium coccineum Lyngbye)
English: Cockscomb (Dickinson 1963).

(as Plocamium subtile Kützing)
English: Sparsely Branched Cock's Comb (Bunker & al. 2010).

(as Plocamium cartilagineum (Linnaeus) P.S.Dixon)
English: Cock's Comb (Bunker & al. 2010).

Narrow, compressed, cartilaginous, bright scarlet fronds, to 300 mm long, tufted, much divided. Branching irregularly alternate, pinnules alternately secund in twos to fives, with acute apices, lowest of each set a simple spur, others increasingly strongly pectinate.

Temperate seas throughout the world; found on coasts of strong to moderate wave action and known from depths of 2-26 m (Womersley 1994: 389). Growing on Laminaria hyperborea stipes and on other larger algae; mainly subtidal, abundant, widely distributed, often washed ashore in quantity.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program. [in Korean]

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cremades, J., Barreiro, R., Maneiro, I. & Saunders, G.W. (2011). A new taxonomic interpretation of the type of Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae) and its consequences. European Journal of Phycology 46(2): 125-142.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Saunders, G.W. & Lehmkuhl, K.V. (2005). Molecular divergence and morphological diversity among four cryptic species of Plocamium (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae) in northern Europe. European Journal of Phycology 40: 293-312.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1994). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia - Part IIIA - Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (Acrochaetiales, Nemaliales, Gelidiales, Hildenbrandiales and Gigartinales sensu lato). pp. [1]-508, 167 figs, 4 pls, 4 maps. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study.

Yano, T., Kamiya, M., Arai, S. & Kawai, H. (2004). Morphological homoplasy in Japanese Plocamium species (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta) inferred from the Rubisco spacer sequence and intracellular acidity. Phycologia 43: 383-393, 11 figs, 2 tables.

Yano, T., Kamiya, M., Murikami, A., Sasaki, H. & Kawai, H. (2006). Biochemical phenotypes corresponding to molecular phylogeny of the red alga Plocamium (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta): implications of incongruence with the conventional taxonomy. Journal of Phycology 42: 155-169.

Created: 30 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 16 January 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 20654 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Barrow, K.D. & Temple, C.A. (1985). Biosynthesis of halogenated monoterpenes in Plocamium cartilagineum. Phytochemistry 24: 1697-1704.
Cremades, J., Barreiro, R., Maneiro, I. & Saunders, G.W. (2011). A new taxonomic interpretation of the type of Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae) and its consequences. European Journal of Phycology 46(2): 125-142.
Cremades, J., Maneiro, I. & Barreiro, R. (2009). Consecuencias de la nueva interpretación taxonómica del tipo de Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Florideophyceae). Algas, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ficología 42: 5-6.
Kain (Jones), J.M. (1984). Plocamium cartilagineum in the Isle of Man: why are there so many tetrasporophytes?. British Phycological Journal 19: 195.
Kain (Jones), J.M. (1986). Seasonal growth of Plocamium cartilagineum and inhibition by high light. British Phycological Journal 21: 331.
Kain (Jones), J.M. (1987). Seasonal growth and photoinhibition in Plocamium cartilagineum (Rhodophyta) off the Isle of Man. Phycologia 26: 88-99.
Konig, G.M., Wright, A.D. & Sticher, O. (1990). A new polyhalogenated monoterpene from the red alga Plocamium cartilagineum. J Nat Prod-Lloydia 53(6): 1615-1618.
König, G.M., Wright, A.D. & Sticher, O. (1990). A new polyhalogenated monoterpene from the red alga Plocamium cartilagineum. Journal of Natural Products 53: 1615-1618.
Rovirosa, J., Moena, J. & San-Martín, A. (1988). Two chemical types of the red alga Plocamium cartilagineum. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 16: 593-595.
San-Martín, A. & Rovirosa, J. (1986). Variations in the halogenated monoterpene metabolites of Plocamium cartilagineum of the Chilean coast. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 14: 459-461.
Sanchis Collado, N. (2019). Estudios moleculares en Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta) sugieren la existencia de diversidad críptica en la Antártida y el Mar Mediterráneo. : .
Sanchís Collado, N., Martín Martín, R.P., Rull Lluch, J., Gómez Garreta, A. & Vitales Serrano, D. (2019). Estudios moleculares en Plocamium cartilagineum (Plocamiales, Rhodophyta) sugieren la existencia de diversidad críptica en la Antártida y en el Mediterráneo. Algas 55: 38.
Sanmartin, A., Negrete, R. & Rovirosa, J. (1991). Insecticide and acaricide activities of polyhalogenated monoterpenes from Chilean Plocamium cartilagineum. Phytochemistry 30(7): 2165-2169.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 July 2021.

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