163,778 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,783 images, 63,043 bibliographic items, 481,364 distributional records.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Bryopsidales
Family Codiaceae
Genus Codium


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Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Jervis Bay, New South Wales. 08 May 2019. R.Hilliard. © R.Hilliard.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
xposed rocky shore at Bradys Beach, Bamfield, B.C.. 24 Oct 2014. Bridgette Clarkston. © 2014 Bridgette Clarkston.

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal, Ria de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 2013. 27 Dec 2013. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia; with Hormosira banksii on open rock. 18 Nov 2013. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia; in rock-pool. 18 Nov 2013. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal, South of Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal with C. tomentosum, North of Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
upper subtidal, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
lower intertidal, North of Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland. . 22 Apr 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org).

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Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot Point Lonsdale, Victoria, Australia; in rock-pool
© M.D. Guiry (michael.guiry@algaebase.org)

Publication details
Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889: 32-33

Published in: Hariot, P. (1889). Algues. In: Mission Scientifique du Cap Horn. 1882-1883. Tome V. Botanique. Cryptogamie. (Hariot, P., Petit, P., Muller De Argovie, J., Bescherelle, E., Massolongo, C. & Franchet, A. Eds), pp. 3-109. Paris: Gauthier-Villars et Fils, Imprimieurs Libraires.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Codium is Codium tomentosum Stackhouse.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Acanthocodium fragile Suringar

Type information
Type locality: Iaponia: Textor [Japan collected by Textor] (Suringar 1867: 258). Type: L 910, 187...1712

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), fragile (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Acanthocodium fragile Suringar 1867
Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot 1889

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Codium mucronatum J.Agardh 1887
Codium mucronatum var. tomentosoides Van Goor 1923
Codium fragile var. typicum Schmidt 1923
Codium fragile subsp. capense P.C.Silva 1959

Taxonomic notes
Codium fragile in Oregon and California requires reassessment (Trowbridge in Gabrielson, Widdowson & Lindstrom 2004: 12). Two forms are apparent but futher studies are required.

Kusakina et al. (2006:1) note that the C. fragile material found in Caribou Harbour is an intermediate in terms of both mucron length and molecular data, suggesting a hybrid of ssp. tomentosoides and ssp. atlanticum. - (28 Aug 2006) - Wendy Guiry

Two supposedly introduced subspecies have been recognised in Britain and Ireland since Silva's (1955) study, viz, Codium fragile subsp. atlanticum (A.D. Cotton) P.C. Silva and C. fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goor) P.C. Silva. However, Maggs (in Brodie, Maggs & John 2007: 194) and Provan et al. (2008) have shown that the first is probably native, and the second, whilst introduced and invasive, is synonymous with C. fragile subsp. fragile. The degree of both genotypic variation reported (small) and phenotypic variation described (large) makes the described subspecies and varieties unsustainable and it would be better to recognise one variable species for all practical purposes. - (29 Dec 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Distributional notes
The nominate subspecies was introduced accidentally, probably on multiple occasions via shipping and via oysters imported from the N Pacific for farming, into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 269), being first found in France in 1946. It is now widespread in the Mediterranean. - (6 Nov 2015) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot)
Chinese: Sui song (Lembi & Waaland 1988).

English: Fleece, Sponge Tang (Madlener 1977), Sponge Seaweed, Sponge Weed, Green Sea-Velvet (Anon. 2000), Green Sponge Fingers, Fragile Green Sponge Fingers (Bunker & al. 2010).

Gaeilge: Spúinse (Anon. 2000).

Japanese: Miru (Madlener 1977).

Korean: Chonggak (Madlener 1977).

Common names used in commerce, often for edible algae
dichotomous sponge tang; shui-sung {China}

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Acanthocodium fragile Suringar)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot)
Atlantic Islands: Azores (Parente, Neto & al. 2020), Canary Islands (Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John & al. 2004, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Gough Island (Chamberlain 1965).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Curiel & al.1998), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Britain (Burrows 1991, Brodie & al. 2015, Bunker & al. 2017), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Coppejans 1979), Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), France (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Anon. 2017, Anon. 2017), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Tsiamis & al. ), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Burrows 1991, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012 , Bunker & al. 2017), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga & al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018, Karlason & al. 2018, Karlason & al. 2018), Spain (Ramos Esplá 1985, Báez, Conde & Flores-Moya 2001, Gorostiaga & al., 2004, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010, Pinedo et al. 2013, Skukan et al. 2021), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Sweden (Kylin 1949), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977, Scagel & al. 1989, Goff, Liddle, Silva, Voytek & Coleman 1992, Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), Baja California (Taylor 1945, Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), British Columbia (Scagel & al. 1989, Lewis & Lanker, Prince & Trowbridge 2004, Saunders & Kucera 2010), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Stewart 1991, Goff, Liddle, Silva, Voytek & Coleman 1992, Miller 2012), Connecticut (Van Patten 2009, Kraemer et al. 2017), Isla Guadalupe (Setchell & Gardner 1930), Maine (Kusakina et al 2006), New Brunswick (Hubbard & Garbary 2002, Kusakina et al 2006), New Hampshire (Field et al. 2018), Newfoundland (Matheson et al. 2014 ), Nova Scotia (Hubbard & Garbary 2002, Kusakina et al 2006), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al. 2018), Prince Edward Island (Hubbard & Garbary 2002, Kusakina et al 2006), Washington (Scagel & al. 1989, Galloway et al. 2012).

Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Croce & al. 2015), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Africa: Algeria (Cherif et al. 2016 , Ould-Ahmed & al. 2019), Libya (Nizamuddin 1991 ), Morocco (Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Cherif et al. 2016 ), Namibia (John & al. 2004), Tunisia (Cherif et al. 2016 ).

Middle East: Iran (Kokabi & Yousefzadi 2015), Israel (Israel & Einav 2017), Red Sea (Einav & al. 2021), Turkey (Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Sri Lanka (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Myanmar (Burma) (Soe-Htun & al. 2009), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009, Wang 2012), Japan (Okamura 1936, Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Prince & Trowbridge 2004, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Oh, Lee & Lee 1987, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Bae 2010), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Kloczcova 1996, Selina et al. 2015), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Huisman 2019), New South Wales (Womersley 1984, Millar & Kraft 1994, Carvalho & Eyre 2017), New Zealand (Broady & al. 2012, Broady & al. 2012, Broady & al. 2012), Queensland (Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984, Anon. 2011), Tasmania (Womersley 1984, Anon. 2011, Scott 2017), Victoria (Womersley 1984, Anon. 2011), Western Australia (Anon. 2011, Marconi et al. 2011).

Subantarctic Islands: Îles Kerguelen (Féral & al. 2021).

Antarctic and Antarctic islands: Ant./Subantarctic and islands (Papenfuss 1964).

(as Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot)
Europe: Britain (Brodie & al. 2007), Netherlands (Gittenberger & al. 2010 ), Norway (Armitage et al. 2014), Spain (Invernón et al. 2009, Bermejo et al. 2010), Venice Lagoon (Sfriso & al. 2019 ).

Africa: Tunisia (Cherif et al. 2016).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Nelson et al. 2014), North Island, NZ (Armitage & al. 2017), Victoria (Shepherd et al. 2009, Croce et al. 2018).

(as Codium fragile subsp. capense P.C.Silva)
Africa: Namibia (Wynne 1986, Rull Lluch 2002, John & al. 2004), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997).

Key references
Amitage, C.S. & Sjøtun, K. (2016). Codium fragile in Norway: subspecies identity and morphology. Botanica Marina 59(6): 439-450, 5 fig..

Belous, O.S., Titlyanova, T.V. & Titlyanov, E.A. (2013). Morskiye rasteniya bukhty Troitsy i smezhnykh akvatorii radno (Zaliv Petra Velikogo, Yaponskoye more) [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. 263, profusely illustrated. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program. [in Korean]

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Chamberlain, Y.M. (1965). Marine algae of Gough Island. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Botany 3(5): 176-232, 80 figs; pls 16-19.

Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Kim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. (2010). Bryopsidales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 157-209. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Kusakina, J., Snyder, M., Kristie, D.N. & Dadswell, M.J. (2006). Morphological and molecular evidence for multiple invasions of Codium fragile in Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 49: 1-9.

Lam, D.W. & Zechman, F.W. (2006). Phylogenetic analyses of the Bryopsidales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on RUBISCO large subunit gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 42: 669-678.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, 109 pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Mondragon, J. & Mondragon, J. (2003). Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Common marine algae from Alaska to Baja California. pp. [i]iv, [1]-97. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers.

Mya Kyawt Wai, Thida Nyunt, Soe Pa Pa Kyaw and Soe-Htun, U. (2009). The morphology and distribution of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) from Myanmar. Journal of Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science 7(5): 183-187.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 2 Brunalger (Phaeophyceae) og Grønalger (Chlorophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 8: [1]-476, col. figs and distributional maps.

Nizamuddin, M. (1991). The green marine algae of Libya. pp. 1-230. Bern: El-Faateh University, Department of Botany.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Provan, J., Booth, D., Todd, N.P., Beatty, G.E. & Maggs, C.A. (2008). Tracking biological invasions in space and time: elucidating the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile using old DNA. Diversity and Distributions A Journal of Conservation Biogeography 14: 343-354.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Scagel, R.F. (1957). An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). Bulletin, National Museum of Canada 150: [i]-vi, 1-289.

Schories, D., Selig, U. & Schubert, H. (2009). Species and synonym list of the German marine macroalgae based on historical and recent records. Rostocker Meeresbiologische Beiträge 21: 7-135.

Scott, F.J. (2017). Marine plants of Tasmania. pp. [i]-viii, 1-360, numerous col. illus. Hobart: Tasmania Herbarium, Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Silva, P.C. (1955). The dichotomous species of Codium in Britain. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 34: 565-577, 5 figs, 1 plate.

Smith, G.M. (1944). Marine algae of the Monterey Peninsula. pp. i-ix, 1-622, 98 pls. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Stiger-Pouvreau, V. & Thouzeau, G. (2015). Marine species introduced on the French Channel-Atlantic coasts: A review of main biological invasions and impacts. Open Journal of Ecology 5: 227-257.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Verbruggen, H., Brookes, M.J.L. & Costa, J.F. (2016). DNA barcodes and morphometric data indicate that Codium fragile (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) may consist of two species. Phycologia 56(1): 54-62.

Verbruggen, H., Leliaert, F., Maggs, C.A., Shimada, S., Schils, T., Provan, J., Booth, D., Murphy, S., De Clerck, O., Littler, D.S., Littler, M.M. & Coppejans, E. (2007). Species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the green algal genus Codium (Bryopsidales) based on plastid DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 240-254.

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photographs and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Vinogradova, K.L. (1979). Opredelitel' vodorosley dal'nevostochnykh morey SSSR. Zelenyye Vodorosli [Manual for identification of the algae of the far-eastern seas of the USSR. Green algae]. pp. 147, 67 figures, 18 plates. Leningrad: Botanicheskii Institut imeni V.L. Komarova. [in Russian]

Zemke-White, W.L. & Ohno, M. (1999). World seaweed utilisation: an end-of-century summary. Journal of Applied Phycology 11: 369-376.

Created: 04 March 1998 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 June 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 23296 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Amitage, C.S. & Sjøtun, K. (2016). Codium fragile in Norway: subspecies identity and morphology. Botanica Marina 59(6): 439-450, 5 fig..
Armitage, C.S., Sjotun, K. & Jensen, K,H. (2014). Correlative evidence for competition between Fucus serratus and the introduced chlorophyte Codium fragile subsp. fragilie on the southwest coast of Norway. Botanica Marina 57(2): 85-97.
Armitage, P.R., Nelson, W.A. & Sutherland, J.E. (2017). Mismatch of morphological and molecular identifications in native and invasive subspecies of Codium fragile (Bryopsidophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 53(1): 218-229, 7 figs, 2 tables.
Bégin, C. & Scheibling, R.E. (2003). Growth and survival of the invasive green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides in tide pools on a rocky shore in Nova Scotia. Botanica Marina 46: 404-412.
Ben-Avraham, Z. (1971). Acccumulation of stones on beaches by Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography 16(3): 553-554, 1 fig.
Blunden, G., Fletcher, R.L., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). An unusual growth form of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subspecies tomentosoides (Goor) Silva found on floating structures in the Solent. British Phycological Journal 24: 299.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Mitosis and mitotic activity in Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 8: 149-155.
Borden, C.A. & Stein, J.R. (1969). Reproduction and early development on Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot: Chlorophyceae. Phycologia 8: 91-99.
Bulleri, F., Branca, M.G., Abbiati, M. & Airoldi, L. (2007). Development of reproductive structures in the introduced green alga, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. in the northern Adriatic Sea. European Journal of Phycology 42(2): 137-144, 4 Figs, 2 Tables.
Campbell, S.J. (1999). Occurrence of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta: Bryopsidales) in marine embayments of southeastern Australia. Journal of Phycology 35: 938-940, 1 fig.
Carlton, J.T. & Scanlon, J.A. (1985). Progression and dispersal of an introduced alga: Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) on the Atlantic Coast of North America. Botanica Marina 28: 155-165.
Chapman, A.S. (1999). From introduced species to invader: what determines variation in the success of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) in the North Atlantic Ocean. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 52: 277-289.
Cherif, W., Ktari, L., El Bour, M., Boudabous, A. & Grignon-Dubois, M. (2016). Codium fragile subsp. fragile (Suringar) Hariot in Tunisia: morphological data and status of knowledge (Note). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(2): 129-136.
Churchill, A.C. & Moeller, H.W. (1972). Seasonal patterns of reproduction in New York. Population of Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot subsp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva.. Journal of Phycology 8: 147-152.
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Cuesta Moliner, C. (2006). Macroalgas invasoras del Principado de Asturias: situación actual de Codium fragile. In: (GEIB: Grupo Especialista en Investigaciones Biológicas, eds.) Resúmenes del II Congreso Nacional sobre Especies Exóticas Invasoras, León, p. 71. ( Eds)
Cires Rodriguez, E. & Rico Ordás, J.M. (2007). Distribución, crecimiento y fenología del alga invasora Codium fragile y su congénere nativa Codium tomentosum. In: (Real Instituto de Estudios Asturianos, eds.) I Congreso de Estudios Asturianos (2006) Tomo VI. Comisión de Ciencias de la Naturaleza y Tecnología, Oviedo, pp. 145-161. ( Eds)
Delgado, A. & Duville, C.A. (1977). Estudio de la composición química de Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot (Chlorophyta) en Pto. Deseado (Prov. de Santa Cruz, Argentina). Contribución Técnica CIBIMA 31: 9.
Dromgoole, F.I. (1975). Occurrence of Codium fragile subspecies tomentosoides in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 9: 257-264.
Drouin, A., McKindsey, C. & Johnson, L. (2011). Detecting the impacts of notorious invaders: experiments versus observations in the invasion of eelgrass meadows by the green seaweed Codium fragile. Oecología : .
Feldmann, J. (1956). Sur la parthénogénèse du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot dans la Méditerranée. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris 243: 305-307.
Fletcher, R.L., Blunden, G., Smith, B.E., Rogers, D.J. & Fish, B.C. (1989). Occurrence of a fouling, juvenile, stage of Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Codiales). J Appl Phycol 1: 227-237.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1972). Winter fragmentation of Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot ssp. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva (Chlorophyceae, Siphonales) in New England. Phycologia 11: 67-70.
Fralick, R.A. & Mathieson, A.C. (1973). Ecological studies of Codium fragile in New England, USA. Marine Biology, Berlin 19(2): 127-132. [in English]
Furnari, G. (1974). Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot in the Lake Faro (Messina). Mem Biol Marina e Oceanogr 4: 193-199.
Furnari, G. (1974). Segnalazione di Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot nel lago di Faro (Messina). Mem. Biol. Mar. Oceanogr. 4: 193-199.
Garbary, D.J., Vandermeulen, H. & Kim, K.Y. (1997). Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta) Invades the Gulf of St Lawrence , Atlantic Canada. Botanica Marina 40: 537-540.
Griffin, R.L., Rogers, D.J., Spencer-Phillips, P.T. & Swain, L. (1995). Lectin from Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides conjugated to colloidal gold: a new histochemical reagent.. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 52: 225-227.
Hanisak, M. D. (1979). Growth patterns of Codium fragile ssp, tomentosoides in response to temperature, irradiance, salinity, and nitrogen source. . Mar. Biol. 50(4): 319-332.
Hanisak, M. D. (1979). Nitrogen limitation of Codium fragile ssp, tomentosoides as determined by tissue analysis. . Mar. Biol. 50(4): 333-337.
Hanisak, M.D. & Harlin, M.M. (1978). Uptake of inorganic nitrogen by Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 14: 450-454, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Hanisak, M.D. (1979). Effect of indole-3-acetic acid on growth of Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (Chlorophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 15: 124-127.
Hedberg, M.F., Huang, Y.-S. & Hommersand, M.H. (1981). Size of the chloroplast genome in Codium fragile. Science 213: 445-447.
Hewad, W.D. & Carpenter, E.J. (1975). Nitrogen fixation associated with the marine macroalga Codium fragile. Limnology and Oceanography 20: 815-823.
Hubbard, C.B. & Garbary, D.J. (2002). Morphological variation of Codium fragile (Chlorophyta) in Eastern Canada. Botanica Marina 45: 476-485.
Hwang, E.K., Baek, J.M. & Park, C.S. (2009). Cultivation of the green alga, Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, by artificial seed production in Korea. Proceedings of the International Seaweed Symposium 19: 19-25, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Jónsson, S. & Gunnarsson, K. (1975). La presence du Codium fragile (Sur.) Hariot en Islande et son extension dans l'Atlantique Nord. Nova Hedwigia 26: 725-732.
Jurd, K.M., Rogers, D.J., Blunden, G. & McLellan, D.S. (1995). Anticoagulant properties of sulphated polysaccharides and a proteoglycan from Codium fragile ssp. atlanticum. J. Appl. Phycol. 7: 339-345.
Kadokami, K., Yoshida, N., Mizusaki, K., Noda, K. & Makisumi, S. (1990). Some properties of trypsin-like proteases extracted from the seaweed Codium fragile and their purification. Marine Biology, Berlin 107(3): 513-517.
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