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Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Balech

Publication details
Alexandrium catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Balech in D.M.Anderson, A.W.White & D.G.Baden 1985: 37

Published in: Fukuyo, Y., Yoshida, K. & Inoue, H. (1985). Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: Toxic dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, June 8-12, 1985. (Anderson, D.M., White, A.W. & Baden, D.G. Eds), pp. 27-32. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gonyaulax catenella Whedon & Kofoid

Type information
Type locality: NW Pacific Ocean: San Diego, California, USA (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 11). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 11).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax catenella Whedon & Kofoid 1936
Protogonyaulax catenella (Whedon & Kofoid) Taylor 1979
Gessnerium catenellum (Whedon & Kofoid) A.R.Loeblich III & L.A.Loeblich 1979

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax washingtonensis B.C.-C.Hsu 1967
Alexandrium fundyense Balech 1985
Protogonyaulax fundyensis (Balech) F.Gómez & L.F.Artigas 2019

Taxonomic notes
According to Lilly et al. (2007: 1336), the three morphospecies of the A. tamarense complex do not conform to the phylogenetic, biological, or morphological species definition and thus ought not to be considered valid species. Instead, five phylogenetic groups have been identified that are likely cryptic species, and they strongly recommend that these groups be evaluated for species-level status. They argue that geographically based names are no longer indicative of the range occupied by members of each group. They recommend a simple group-numbering scheme for use until the taxonomy of this group is reevaluated and species names proposed. - (11 Mar 2008) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002:12) notes Alexandrium catenella is a known toxin-producing dinoflagellate species. It produces strong PSP toxins which are transmitted via tainted shellfish. These toxins can affect humans, other mammals, fish and birds: c1-c4 toxins, saxitoxins (SXT) and gonyautoxins (GTX). Ichthyotoxins have been reported in cultured A. catenella. Please consult original reference for further details. Harmful species.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Bornet, B., Antoine, E., Françoise, S. & Marcaillou-Le Baut, C. (2005). Development of sequence characterized amplified region markers from intersimple sequence repeat fingerprints for the molecular detection of toxic phytoplankton Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) and Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) from French coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 41: 704-711.

Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Diogene, J., Fraga, S., Sampedro, N. & Figueroa, R.I. (2006). Resting cysts of the toxigenic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium in recent sediments from the Western Mediterranean coast, including the first description of cysts of A. kutnerae and A. peruvianum. European Journal of Phycology 41(3): 293-302.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Figueroa, R.I., Bravo, I. & Garcés, E. (2005). Effects of nutritional factors and different parental crosses on the encystment and escystment of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) in culture. Phycologia 44: 658-670.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Harlow, L.D., Koutoulis, A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2007). S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates. Phycologia 46: 46-53.

Harlow, L.D., Negri, A., Hallegraeff, G.M. & Koutoulis, A. (2007). Sam, Sahh, and Map gene expression during cell division and paralytic shellfish toxin production of Alexandrium catanella (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 46(6): 666-674.

Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Kim, S. (2006). Patterns in host range for two strains of Amoebophyra (Dinophyta) infecting thecate dinoflagellates: Amoebophyra spp. ex Alexandrium affine and ex Gonyaulax polygramma (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1170-1173.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lilly, E.L., Halanych, K.M. & Anderson, D.M. (2007). Species boundaries and global biogeography of the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 43: 1329-1338.

Penna, A., Fraga, S., Masó, M., Giacobbe, M.G., Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Vila, M., Bertozzini, E., Adreoni, F., Lugliè, A. & Vernesi, C. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. European Journal of Phycology 43(2): 163-178, 25 figs, 3 tables.

Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. (2017). Report of the Nomenclature Committee for Algae: 15. Taxon 66(1): 191-192.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5389 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Adachi, M., Sako, Y. & Ishida, Y. (1996). Note: Identification of the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium catenella and A. tamarense (Dinophyceae) using DNA probes and whole-cell hybridization. Journal of Phycology 32: 1049-1052, 1 fig, 1 table.
Bornet, B., Antoine, E., Françoise, S. & Marcaillou-Le Baut, C. (2005). Development of sequence characterized amplified region markers from intersimple sequence repeat fingerprints for the molecular detection of toxic phytoplankton Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) and Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima (Bacillariophyceae) from French coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 41: 704-711.
Collos, Y., Gagne, C., Laabir, M., Vaquer, A., Cecchi, P. & Souchu, P. (2004). Nitrogenous nutrition of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) in cultures and in Thau lagoon, southern France. Journal of Phycology 40: 96-103.
Collos, Y., Jauzein, C., Laabir, M. & Vaquer,A. (2013). Discrepancies between net particulate carbon production and 13C-labelled bicarbonate uptake by Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae): grazing controls the balance between autotrophic and non autotrophic carbon acquisition. Journal of Phycology 49(3): 441-446.
Figueroa, R.I., Bravo, I. & Garcés, E. (2005). Effects of nutritional factors and different parental crosses on the encystment and escystment of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) in culture. Phycologia 44: 658-670.
Hansen, G. & Moestrup, Ø. (1998). Fine-structural characterization of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) with special emphasis on the flagellar apparatus. European Journal of Phycology 33: 281-291, 27 figs, 1 table.
Harlow, L.D., Koutoulis, A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2006). A novel, simplified technique for preservation and rapid isolation of total RNA from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 45: 311-318.
Herzi, F., Jean, N., Hlaili, A.S. & Mounier, S. (2014). Three-dimensional (3-D) fluorecence spectroscopy analysis of the fluorescent dissolved organic matter released by the marine toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella exposed to metal stress by zinc or lead. Journal of Phycology 50(4): 665-674.
Jauzein, C., Collos, Y., Garcés, E., Vila, M. & Maso, M. (2008). Short-term temporal variability of ammonium and urea uptake by Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyta) in cultures. Journal of Phycology 44: 1136-1145.
Jauzein, C., Labry, C., Youenou, A., Quéré, J., Delmas, D. & Collos, Y. (2010). Growth and phophorus uptake by the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) in response to phosphate limitation. Journal of Phycology 46(5): 926-936.
Kamikawa, R., Nishimura, H. & Sako, Y. (2009). Analysis of the mitochondrial genome, transcripts, and electron transport activity in the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycological Research 57(1): 1-11.
Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M., Fukuyo, Y. & Kim, C.-H. (2002). Morphological observation of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, A. catenella (Whedon et Kofoid) Balech and one related morphotype (Dinophyceae) in Korea. Algae 17(1): 11-19, 3 figs, 1 tale.
Meksumpun, S., Montani, S. & Uematsu, M. (1994). Elemental components of cyst walls of three marine phytoflagellates, Chattonella antiqua (Raphidophyceae), Alexandrium catenella and Scrippsiella trochoidea (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 33: 275-280, 12 figs, 1 table.
Penna, A., Garcés, E., Vila, M., Giacobbe, M.G., Fraga, A., Lugliè, A., Bravo, I., Bertozzini, E. & Vernesi, C. (2005). Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae), a toxic ribotype expanding in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology, Berlin 148: 13-23.
Sawayama, S., Sako, Y. & Ishida, Y. (1993). Note: Inhibitory effects of concanavalin A and tunicamycin on sexual attachment of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 29: 189 -190, 2 tables.
Yoshida, T., Sako, Y. & Uchida, A. (2001). Geographic differences in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin profiles among Japanese populations of Alexandrium tamarense and A/ catenella (Dinophyceae). Phycological Research 49: 13-22.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 February 2020.

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