157,571 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,210 images, 60,987 bibliographic items, 459,373 distributional records.

Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech, nom. inval.

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Pyrophacaceae
Genus Alexandrium


Publication details
Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech in D.M.Anderson, A.W.White & D.G.Baden 1985: 37, nom. inval.

Published in: Fukuyo, Y., Yoshida, K. & Inoue, H. (1985). Protogonyaulax in Japanese coastal waters. In: Toxic dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Toxic Dinoflagellates, St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada, June 8-12, 1985. (Anderson, D.M., White, A.W. & Baden, D.G. Eds), pp. 27-32. New York, Amsterdam, Oxford: Elsevier.

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Gonyaulax fraterculus Balech

Type information
Type locality: Argentina: Mar del Plata (Balech 1964: 41).

Origin of species name
Noun (Latin), little brother.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax fraterculus Balech 1964
Gessnerium fraterculus (Balech) Loeblich & Loeblich, III 1979
Protogonyaulax fraterculus (Balech) F.J.R.Taylor 1979

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gessnerium fraterculum (Balech) L.Loeblich & Loeblich III
Protogonyaulax fratercula (Balech) Taylor

Nomenclatural notes
Epithet is an indecinable, second-decension masculine noun. - (12 Feb 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Invalid: basionym not validly published - (17 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Shellfish toxin. - (17 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216. [in English and Vietnamese]

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Menezes, M., Varela, D., de Oliveira Proenca, L.A., da Silva Tamanaha, M. & Paredes, J. (2010). Identification of the toxic alga Alexandrium tamiyavanichi (Dinophyceae) from northeastern Brazil: a combined morphological and rDNA sequence (partial LSU and ITS) approach. Journal of Phycology 46(6): 1239-1251.

Nagai, S., Nishitani, G., Takano, Y., Yoshida, M. & Takayama, H. (2009). Encystment and excystment under laboratory conditions of the nontoxic dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Phycologia 48(3): 177-185, 24 figs, 1 table.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1523 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Lee, K.H., Jeong, H.J., Kang, H.C., Ok, J.H., You, J.H. & Park, S.A. (2019). Growth rates and nitrate uptake of co-occurring red-tide dinoflagellates Alexandrium affine and A. fraterculus as a function of nitrate concentration under light-dark and continuous light conditions. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 334(3): 237-251.
Nagai, S., Nishitani, G., Takano, Y., Yoshida, M. & Takayama, H. (2009). Encystment and excystment under laboratory conditions of the nontoxic dinoflagellate (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Phycologia 48(3): 177-185, 24 figs, 1 table.

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/species/detail/?species_id=40287

Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2020. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 February 2020.

SITE © 1996 - 2020 M.D. Guiry. All rights reserved.

Website Design : 249 Design Studio