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Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham 1995

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Gracilariales
Family Gracilariaceae
Subfamily Gracilarioideae
Tribe Gracilariopsideae
Genus Gracilariopsis

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham
Ría de Ares, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham
longitudinal section, Ría de Ares, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham
longitudinal section, Ría de Ares, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham
longitudinal section, Ría de Ares, Galicia, Spain, 2014. Ignacio Barbara. © Ignacio Barbara.

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 27 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham
Peter the Great Bay, Russia. 27 Mar 2012. Oksana Belous. © Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru).

 

Orthosorus nigrescens (Sonder) Trevisan

Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham Peter the Great Bay, Russia
© Oksana Belous (ksu_bio@mail.ru)

Publication details
Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham 1995: 117

Published in: Steentoft, M., Irvine, L.M. & Farnham, W.F. (1995). Two terete species of Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in Britain. Phycologia 34(2): 113-127, 37 figs.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Gracilariopsis is Gracilariopsis sjoestedtii (Kylin) E.Y.Dawson.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus longissimus S.G.Gmelin

Type information
Type locality: England: Kent: Sheerness (Index Nominum Algarum). Type: Dillenius; (Index Nominum Algarum

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), very long (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus longissimus S.G.Gmelin 1768
Ceramium longissimum (S.G.Gmelin) Roth 1800

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus verrucosus Hudson 1762
Fucus confervoides Linnaeus 1763
Ceramium confervoides F.H.Wiggers 1780
Sphaerococcus confervoides (F.H.Wiggers) Stackhouse 1797
Flagellaria verrucosa (Hudson) Stackhouse 1809
Gigartina confervoides (Linnaeus) J.V.Lamouroux 1813
Sphaerococcus verrucosus (Hudson) C.Agardh 1817
Sphaerococcus confervoides var. verrucosus (Hudson) C.Agardh 1822
Gracilaria confervoides (Linnaeus) Greville 1830
Hypnea confervoides (C.Agardh) J.Agardh 1842
Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss 1950
Gracilariopsis verrucosa (Hudson) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham 1995

Taxonomic notes
According to Gargiulo (in Furnari et al., 1999), themost records referred as Gracilariopsis longissima for Adriatic shores of Italy are probably based on specimens belonging to species of Gracilaria.

Specimens reported as Fucus verrucosus, Fucus confervoides, Gracilaria verrucosa and Gracilaria confervoides - in fact, all terete Gracilaria - from the NE Atlantic and elsewhere require individual examination to determine whether they belong to Gracilaria or Gracilariopsis, and then a decision as to which species is in question. - (18 Sep 2010) - M.D. Guiry

Distributional notes
Records of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Bory) Dawson from Britain (Fredericq & Hommersand 1989b) were rejected by Steentoft et al. (1995) and the plants in question referred to this species. See also Steentoft & Farnham (1997). Guiry (1997) notes that this species is also known from France and Spain. See Saunders & Kraft (1994).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Gracilaria confervoides (Linnaeus) Greville)
?: Thack hoa, Rau Câu (Kirby 1953).

(as Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss)
?: Gulaman, Guraman, Gulaman dagat, Caocaoyan (Madlener 1977).

Chinese: Hai mien san, Fen tsai, Hunsai, Hai tsai, Hoi tsoi (Madlener 1977).

English: Thin dragon beard plant, Ceylon moss (Madlener 1977).

Hawaiian: Ogo (McConnaughey 1985).

Japanese: Ogo, Ogo nori (Madlener 1977), Ogo-nori (Chapman & Chapman 1980).

Vietnamese: Nuoc-mam, Rau-cau, Xoa xoa (Madlener 1977).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Fucus verrucosus Hudson)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Fucus confervoides Linnaeus)
Atlantic Islands: Iceland (Hooker 1811).

Europe: Ireland (Tighe 1803).

(as Sphaerococcus confervoides (F.H.Wiggers) Stackhouse)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Gracilaria confervoides (Linnaeus) Greville)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Moro & al. 2011).

Europe: Balearic Islands (Rodríguez y Femenías 1889, Sjöstedt 1926), Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Ireland (Adams 1907, Adams 1908, Cotton 1912), Italy (Giaccone 1969), Spain (Miranda 1931, Miranda 1934), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1944).

North America: Gulf of California (Dawson 1944).

Central America: Islas Revillagigedo (Taylor 1945).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1931), Ecuador (Taylor 1945).

Africa: Morocco (Dangeard 1949), South Africa (Garcia 2005).

Middle East: Israel (Nemlich & Danin 1964, Einav & Israel 2008), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971).

South-west Asia: Sri Lanka (Børgesen 1936).

Asia: Japan (Holmes 1896), Kuril Islands (Nagai 1941), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013).

(as Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss)
Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994), Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Canary Islands (Ballesteros, Sansón, Reyes, Afonso-Carrillo & Gil-Rodríguez 1992, Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Sangil, Sansón & Afonso-Carrillo 2005, Moro & al. 2011), Madeira (Levring 1974, Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001), Salvage Islands (Parente & al. 2000).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Gargiulo, De Masi & Tripodi 1992, Curiel & al.1998), Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán 1983, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1984), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Britain (Dixon & Irvine 1977), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961), France (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987), Ireland (Cullinane 1971, Guiry 1978, De Valéra & al. 1979, Maggs 1983, Whelan & Cullinane 1985, Morton 1994), Isla de Alborán (Conde & Flores Moya 2000), Italy (Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Veen & al. 2015), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Fernández & Niell 1982, Ballesteros 1983, Anadón 1983, Gallardo & al. 1985, Soto & Conde 1989, Pérez-Cirera 1989, Conde, Flores-Moya & Vera 1990, Conde Poyales 1992, Barbara, Cremades & López Rodriguez 1992, Flores-Moya et al. 1994, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Conde & al. 1996, Valenzuela Miranda 2002).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979), Florida (Taylor 1960), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Gulf of California (Norris 1985), Mexico (Taylor 1960, Dawson 1961), North Carolina (Taylor 1960), South Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991), Texas (Taylor 1960), Virginia (Humm 1979).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960), Costa Rica (Fernández-García & al. 2011 ).

Caribbean Islands: Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Trinidad (Taylor 1960, Richardson 1975), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Pujals 1963), Brazil (Taylor 1960, Oliveira Filho 1977, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991 ), Colombia (Schnetter 1969), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Venezuela (Taylor 1960, Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Lawson & John 1987), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987), Guinea-Bissau (Welten, Audiffred & Prud'homme van Reine 2002, Welten, Audiffred & Prud'homme van Reine 2002), Kenya (Silva & al. 1996), Morocco (Conde Poyales 1992), Mozambique (Carvalho & Bandeira 2003), Namibia (Wynne 1986), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987), Senegal (Lawson & John 1987), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva & al. 1996), Togo (Lawson & John 1987), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987).

Indian Ocean Islands: Aldabra Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Andaman Islands (Silva & al. 1996).

Middle East: Egypt (Papenfuss 1968, Aleem 1993), Israel (Hoffman 2004), Oman (Silva & al. 1996, Wynne 2018), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971), Yemen (Papenfuss 1968, Silva & al. 1996).

South-west Asia: Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Silva & al. 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Pakistan (Silva & al. 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993), Myanmar (Burma) (Silva & al. 1996, Hlaing Hlaing Htoon & Soe-Htun), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987), Singapore (Silva & al. 1996), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984), Japan (Segawa 1981), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee et al. 2011), Russia (Khotimchenko 2006), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Perestenko 1996, Kloczcova 1996), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Silva & al. 1996), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1993 ), New Zealand (Adams 1994), Queensland (Lewis 1984, Cribb 1996, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), Rangitahua/Kermadec Islands (Adams 1994), Stewart Island/Rakiura (Adams 1994).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: French Polynesia (Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000), New Caledonia (Payri 2007), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

Subantarctic Islands: Auckland Islands (Adams 1994).

Antarctic and Antarctic islands: Ant./Subantarctic and islands (Papenfuss 1964), Wiencke Island (Wiencke & Clayton 2002).

(as Gracilariopsis longissima (S.G.Gmelin) Steentoft, L.M.Irvine & Farnham)
Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Madeira (Ferreira & al. 2018).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Curiel et al. 2012), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Britain (Hardy & Guiry 2003, Gurgel, Liao, Fredericq & Hommersand 2003, Zuccarello, Moon & Goff 2004, Iyer et al 2005, Brodie & al. 2015), Crimea (Sadogurskiy, Belich & Sadogurskaya 2019), Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), France (Verlaque 2001, Rueness 2005, Anon. 2017), Greece (Christia et al. 2011), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Guiry 2012), Italy (Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Furnari & al. 2003, Furnari & al. 2003, Gurgel & Fredericq 2004, Sfriso et al. 2017), Netherlands (Stegenga & al. 1997), Norway (Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Rueness 2005), Sardinia (Furnari & al. 2003), Spain (Gurgel, Liao, Fredericq & Hommersand 2003, Pérez-Lorens et al. 2004, Bárbara & al. 2005, de los Santos, Pérez-Lloréns & Vergara 2009, Mercado et al. 2009, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010, Bárbara et al. 2012, Álvarez-Gómez et al. 2019), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016).

North America: Gulf of California (Norris, Aguilar-Rosas & Pedroche 2017), Mexico (Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), Mexico (Atlantic) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017, García & al. 2020).

Africa: Angola (Iyer et al 2005), Ghana (Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Morocco (Moussa & al. 2018), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002, John & al. 2004), South Africa (Iyer et al 2005).

Middle East: Egypt (Shabaka 2018), Iran (Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999, Kokabi & Yousefzadi 2015), Turkey (Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014).

South-east Asia: Philippines (Lastimoso & Santiañez 2021), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Asia: China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014), Japan (Titlyanov & al. 2019), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Liao, L.M., Fredericq, S. & Hommersand, M.H. (2003). Systematics of Gracilariopsis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) based on rbcL sequence analyses and morphological evidence. Journal of Phycology 39: 154-171.

Gurgel, C.F.D., Norris, J.N., Schmidt, W.E., Le, H.N. & Fredericq, S. (2018). Systematics of the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) including new subfamilies, tribes, subgenera, and two new genera, Agarophyton gen. nov. and Crassa gen. nov. Phytotaxa 374(1): 1-23.

Iha, C., Grassa, C.J., de M.Lyra, G., Davis, C.C., Verbruggen, H. & Oliveira, M.C. (2018). Organellar genomics: a useful tool to study evolutionary relationships and molecular evolution in Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 54(6): 775-787.

Iyer, R., Tronchin, E.M., Bolton, J.J. & Coyne, V.E. (2005). Molecular systematics of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) with emphasis on Southern Africa. Journal of Phycology 41: 672-684.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 1 Rødalger (Rhodophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 7: [1]-398, col. figs and distributional maps.

Rueness, J. (2005). Life history and molecular sequences of Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new introduction to European waters. Phycologia 44: 120-128.

Stegenga, H., Karremans, M. & Simons, J. (2007). Zeewieren van de voormalige oesterputten bij Yerseke. Gorteria 32: 125-143.

Zuccarello, G.C., Moon, D. & Goff, L.J. (2004). A phylogenetic study of parasitic genera placed in the family Choreocolacaceae (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 937-945, 2 figs, 2 tables.

Created: 13 May 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 February 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5906 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Álvarez-Gómez, F., Bouzon, Z.L., Korbee, N., Celis-Plá, P., Schmidt, E.C. & Figueroa, F.L. (2017). Combined effects of UVR and nutrients on cell structure, photosynthesis and biochemistry in Gracilariopsis longissima (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Algal Research 24: 190-202.
Álvarez-Gómez, F., Korbee, N. & Figueroa, F.L. (2019). Effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis, antioxidant capacity and the accumulation of bioactive compounds in Gracilariopsis longissima, Hydropuntia cornea and Halopithys incurva (Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 55(6): 1258-1273.
Pérez-Llorens, J.L., Brun, F.G., Andría, A. & Vergara, J. (2004). Seasonal and tidal variability of environmental carbon related physico-chemical variables and inorganic C acquisition in Gracilariopsis longissima and Enteromorpha intestinalis from Los Toruños salt marsh (Cádiz Bay, Spain). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 304: 183-201.
Polifrone M.,Viera-Rodríguez M. A, Suárez-Santana J., Lazzoz G. & Pérez-Ruzafa I. (2005). Mapas de distribución de algas marinas de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. XX. Gracilaria corallicola, G. gracilis, G. multipartita y Gracilariopsis longissima (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Botanica Complutensis 29: 77-83.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 20 September 2021.

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