163,402 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,770 images, 62,958 bibliographic items, 480,353 distributional records.

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh 1811

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Ulvales
Family Ulvaceae
Genus Ulva

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
microscope with pyrenoids, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012. 22 Dec 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
microscope, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
microscope with Chaetomorpha linum, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012, Spain. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
as drift material, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
as drift material, Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
Spiddal, Co. Galway, Ireland; on Sabellaria in the lower intertidal . 29 Mar 2012. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry (mikeguiry@me.com).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
1. Fragment of plant. 2. ells from surface view. 3. Turf-forming alga in the middle intertidal zone (Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, China). Insert: On intertidal rocks (Cape Ba Lang An, Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam).. 09 Mar 2012. Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova. © Eduard and Tamara Titlyanova (etitlyanov@mail.ru).

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh
Collected near Roscoff (F), December 1984. 29 Dec 2011. Elmar Wosnitza. © Christine Wosnitza.

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21 Found - Displaying 1 through 10

 

Ilea fascia f. pervulgata (A.D.Zinova) A.D.Zinova

Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh Islas Cíes, Galicia, Spain 2012
© Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es)

Publication details
Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh 1811: 23

Published in: Agardh, C.A. (1811). Dispositio algarum Sueciae, quam publico examini subjiciunt Carl Adolph Agardh... & Johannes Bruzelius, Scanus. Die xi decembris mdcccxi. p. ii. h. & l.s. pp. Pars 2: [i], 17-26. Lundae: Litteris Berlingianis.
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Publication date: 11 Dec 1811

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Ulva is Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Conferva clathrata Roth

Type information
Type locality: Fehmarn, SW Baltic (Berger & al. 2003: 288). Neotype: LD 137737 (Berger & al. 2003: 288). Notes: Original material missing (Blomster et al., 1999; Hayden et al., 2003). Heyden et al. (2003: 288, table 4) select a neotype illustrated in Bliding (1963: figs 69a, b) from Landskoma, Baltic Oresund.

Infrageneric classification
Subgenus Ulva Section Enteromorpha

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), latticed or pierced with openings like a grating or trellis (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Conferva clathrata Roth 1806
Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville 1830
Enteronia clathrata (Roth) Chevallier 1836

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Enteromorpha ramulosa var. robusta Hauck
Enteromorpha paradoxa var. tenuissima Kützing
Scytosiphon clathratus var. uncinatus Lyngbye
Conferva crinita Roth 1797
Ulva muscoides Clemente 1807
Ulva ramulosa Smith 1810
Enteromorpha crinita Nees 1820
Enteromorpha clathrata var. uncinata (Lyngbye) Greville 1830
Enteromorpha ramulosa (Smith) Carmichael 1833
Enteronia rigidula Chevallier 1836
Ulva linkiana (Greville) Trevisan 1842
Zignoa ramulosa (J.E.Smith) Trevisan 1842
Enteromorpha ramulosa var. spinosa Kützing 1845
Enteromorpha complanata var. crinita (Nees) Kützing 1845
Enteromorpha clathrata var. ramulosa (J.E.Smith) Rabenhorst 1847
Enteromorpha gelatinosa Kützing 1849
Enteromorpha clathrata var. linkiana (Greville) Areschoug 1850
Enteromorpha clathrata var. mucosa P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1852
Enteromorpha spinescens Kützing 1856
Ulva clathrata f. prostrata Le Jolis 1863
Ulva clathrata f. gracilis Le Jolis 1863
Enteromorpha welwitschii J.Agardh 1883
Enteromorpha clathrata var. crinita (Nees) Hauck 1884
Enteromorpha clathrata var. prostrata (Le Jolis) Batters 1890
Enteromorpha clathrata var. gracilis (Le Jolis) Batters 1902
Enteromorpha ramulosa var. spinescens (Kützing) Chalon 1905
Enteromorpha ramulosa var. tenerrima Schiffner 1931
Enteromorpha ramulosa f. minima Schiffner 1933
Enteromorpha clathrata f. gracilis (Le Jolis) V.J.Chapman 1937
Enteromorpha clathrata f. linkiana (Greville) V.J.Chapman 1937
Enteromorpha prolifera var. crinita (Nees) V.J.Chapman 1956
Enteromorpha muscoides (Clemente) Cremades 1990

Distributional notes
Results of studies carried out by O'Kelly et al. (2010) suggest that Ulva populations in tropical and subtropical regions consist of species that are largely unique to these areas, for which the application of names based on types from temperate and boreal European and North American waters is inappropriate. - (1 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh)
English: Spiky Tendrils (Bunker & al. 2010).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville)
?: Rupgan (Madlener 1977).

Arabic: Tahalib (F.A.O. 1997).

Chinese: Tai tyau (Madlener 1977).

English: Stone hair (Madlener 1977), Bright green nori (F.A.O. 1997).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Enteromorpha ramulosa var. robusta Hauck)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920).

Africa: Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981).

Asia: Japan (Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Adams 1994).

(as Enteromorpha paradoxa var. tenuissima Kützing)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Conferva crinita Roth)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Conferva clathrata Roth)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva muscoides Clemente)
Africa: Kenya (Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva ramulosa Smith)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva clathrata (Roth) C.Agardh)
Atlantic Islands: Ascension (John & al. 2004), Azores (Parente, Neto & al. 2020), Canary Islands (John & al. 2004, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (Gabriel & Fredericq 2019), Madeira (Ferreira & al. 2018), Salvage Islands (John & al. 2004), St Helena (John & al. 2004), Trindade and Martim Vaz (Pellizzari & al. 2020).

Europe: Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Baltic Sea (Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Black Sea (Milchakova 2011), Britain (Brodie & al. 2007, Brodie & al. 2015), Bulgaria (Temniskova, Stoyneva & Kirjakov 2008), Crimea (Sadogurskiy, Belich & Sadogurskaya 2019), Denmark (Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), France (Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Germany (Täuscher 2019), Greece (Tsiamis & al. ), Ireland (Guiry 2012), Poland (Michalak et al. 2016 ), Portugal (Araújo et al. 2006, Araújo & al. 2009), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Slovenia (Rindi & Battelli 2005), Spain (Gorostiaga & al., 2004, Bárbara & al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Martínez-Gil et al. 2007, Pérez-Ruzafa et al. 2008, Viejo et al. 2008, Peña & Bárbara 2008, Invernón et al. 2009, de los Santos, Pérez-Lloréns & Vergara 2009, Mercado et al. 2009, Peña & Bárbara 2010, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010, Pinedo et al. 2013), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Ukraine (Burova & al. 2011), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Baja California (Norris 2010), Baja California Sur (Gulf) (Pérez-Eatrada et al. 2012 ), California (Miller 2012, Miller 2012), Florida (Littler, Littler & Hanisak 2008), Gulf of California (Norris, Aguilar-Rosas & Pedroche 2017), Mexico (Castaneda-Fernández de Lara et al. 2010 , Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), Mexico (Atlantic) (Mendoza-González, Mateo-Cid & García-López 2017), Texas (Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013).

Central America: Gulf of California (Chávez-Sánchez et al. 2017), Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2005).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Suárez 2005, Gonzáles & al. 2014, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Curaçao (Fricke & al. 2018).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2013), Brazil (Moura 2010, Araujo dos Santos & Do Nascimento Moura 2011), Galápagos Islands (Ruiz & Ziemmeck 2013).

Africa: Algeria (Ould-Ahmed & al. 2019), Cameroon (John & al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (John & al. 2004), Equatorial Guinea (John & al. 2004), Eritrea (Ateweberhan & Prud'homme van Reine 2005), Ghana (John & al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Kenya (Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Liberia (John & al. 2004), Mauritania (John & al. 2004), Morocco (Moussa & al. 2018), Nigeria (John & al. 2004), São Tomé & Príncipe (John & al. 2004), Sierra Leone (John & al. 2004), Spanish North Africa (González García, Paredes Ruiz & Enrique Mirón 2017), Togo (John & al. 2004).

Middle East: Cyprus (Tsiamis & al. 2014), Egypt (Shabaka 2018), Iran (Kokabi & Yousefzadi 2015), Red Sea (Einav & al. 2021), Turkey (Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: (Sohrabipour & Rabiei 2007), Abu Dhabi (John 2005), Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), Goa (Pereira & Almeida 2014), India (Rao & Gupta 2015), Karnataka (Yadav & Palanisamy 2020).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2014), Myanmar (Burma) (Soe-Htun & al. 2009, Hlaing Hlaing Htoon & Soe-Htun, Myo Min Tun & Soe-Htun 2014), Philippines (Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014, Dumilag et al. 2020), Singapore (Pham & al. 2011), Thailand (Tsutsui & al. 2012), Vietnam (Kristiansen & Lind 1995, Titlyanov & Titlyanova 2012, Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Asia: China (Titlyanov et al. 2011 ), China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov & al. 2015, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Commander Islands (Klochkova & al. 2020), Japan (Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Korea (Bae 2010), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov & al. 2016).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2007), Victoria (Shepherd et al. 2009).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: American Samoa (Skelton & al. 2004, Tsuda et al. 2011 ), Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Jarvis I. & Kingman Reef (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Line Islands (Tsuda & Fisher 2012), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014).

(as Enteromorpha crinita Nees)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Lee 1980).

Europe: Britain (Newton 1931, Burrows 1991), France (Coppejans & Kling 1995), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Ireland (Burrows 1991, Morton 1994), Netherlands (Stegenga & al. 1997), Norway (Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Spain (Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996), Sweden (Kylin 1907).

North America: Alaska (Saunders 1901).

South America: Galápagos Islands (Taylor 1945).

Middle East: Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

Asia: China (Ding & Luan 2013), Japan (Holmes 1896, Okamura 1936, Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville)
Arctic: Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen & al. 1999).

Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1925, Sanson, Chacana & Gil-Rodriguez 1990, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun & al. 2002, Aldanondo-Aristizábal, Domínguez-Alvarez & Gil-Rodríguez 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Moro & al. 2011), Cape Verde Islands (Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), E. Greenland (Lund 1959, Pedersen 1976), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972), Lanzarote (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984, Parente & al. 2000).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Munda 1979, Ercegovic 1980, Gallardo & al. 1993), Balearic Islands (Ribera Siguán, Gómez Garreta & Seoane-Camba 1982, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Gallardo & al. 1993), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995), Black Sea (Gallardo & al. 1993), Britain (Batters 1902, Newton 1931, Burrows 1991), Bulgaria (Dimitrova-Konaklieva 1981), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920, Dixon 1961), Corsica (Verlaque 1984, Gallardo & al. 1993), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982), France (Feldmann 1937, Dubois 1972, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Gallardo & al. 1993, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Haritonidis & Tsekos 1976, Tsekos & Haritonidis 1977, Athanasiadis 1987, Gallardo & al. 1993), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Adams 1908, Cotton 1912, Cotton 1913, Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra & al. 1979, Burrows 1991, Morton 1994), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Gallardo & al. 1993, Gallardo & al. 1993, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga & al. 1997), Norway (Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Lázaro Ibiza 1889, Hamel 1928, González Guerrero 1957, Seoane-Camba 1965, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Valenzuela & Pérez-Cirera 1982, Gallardo & al. 1985, Aboal 1988b, Soto & Conde 1989, Pérez-Ruzafa 1990, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Gallardo & al. 1993, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Calvo, Bárbara & Cremades 1999, Cantoral Uiza & Aboal Sanjurjo 2001, Calvo & Bárbara 2002, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Valenzuela Miranda 2002), Sweden (Kylin 1907, Kylin 1949).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977, Scagel & al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel & al. 1989), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979), Connecticut (Schneider et al. 1979), Florida (Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Louisiana (Taylor 1960), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), New Jersey (Taylor 1957), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991), Northwest Territories (Sheath & Steinman 1982), Nova Scotia (Taylor 1957), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Virginia (Humm 1979), Washington (Scagel & al. 1989).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Taylor 1960), Grenada (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Argentina (Boraso de Zaixso 2004, Boraso & Zaixso 2011), Brazil (Taylor 1931, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo & al. 1993), Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Equatorial Guinea (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Kenya (Silva & al. 1996), Liberia (John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Libya (Gallardo & al. 1993), Mauritius (Børgesen 1940, Børgesen 1946, Silva & al. 1996), Morocco (Dangeard 1949, Gallardo & al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Nigeria (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Sierra Leone (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva & al. 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Togo (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Gallardo & al. 1993).

Indian Ocean Islands: Aldabra Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Chagos Archipelago (Silva & al. 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Maldives (Silva & al. 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Rodrigues Island (De Clerck & al. 2004), Seychelles (Silva & al. 1996).

Middle East: Bahrain (Silva & al. 1996), Egypt (Aleem 1993, Gallardo & al. 1993), Iran (Silva & al. 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Iraq (Silva & al. 1996, Maulood & al. 2013, Al-Saboonchi & Al-Shawi 2016), Israel (Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Kuwait (Silva & al. 1996), Saudi Arabia (Silva & al. 1996), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Cirik, Zeybeck, Aysel & Cirik 1990, Gallardo & al. 1993, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993), Yemen (Silva & al. 1996).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Silva & al. 1996, Ahmed & al. 2008), India (Silva & al. 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012), Lebanon (Lakkis 2013), Levant states (Gallardo & al. 1993), Pakistan (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Trono 1997), Singapore (Teo & Wee 1983, Silva & al. 1996), Thailand (Silva & al. 1996), Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969, Tien 2007).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009, Ding & Luan 2013), Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998), Kamchatka (Klochkova & al. 2009), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001), Kuril Islands (Nagai 1940), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009), Russia (Far East) (Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Huang 2000, Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2000), New South Wales (Millar & Kraft 1994), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Nelson & Phillips 1996), Norfolk Island (Millar 1999), Northern Territory (Womersley 1958, Lewis 1987), Queensland (Lewis 1987, Day & al. 1995, Cribb 1996, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1984, Day & al. 1995), Western Australia (Huisman & Walker 1990).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003), French Polynesia (Pari & N'Yeurt 1999), Guam (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Hawaiian Islands (Abbott & Huisman, 2004), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), Marshall Islands (Dawson 1957), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

Antarctic and Antarctic islands: Ant./Subantarctic and islands (Papenfuss 1964).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. uncinata (Lyngbye) Greville)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha ramulosa (Smith) Carmichael)
Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994, Tittley & Neto 1994), Canary Islands (Børgesen 1925, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987), Lanzarote (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980), Madeira (Levring 1974), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Ercegovic 1980), Channel Islands (Dixon 1961), France (Feldmann 1937, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Athanasiadis 1987), Ireland (Adams 1908, Guiry 1978, De Valéra & al. 1979, Maggs 1983), Italy (Giaccone 1969), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983), Portugal (Ardré 1970), Spain (Sauvageau 1897, Hamel 1928, Miranda 1931, Seoane-Camba 1957, Ardré 1957, Fischer-Piette, C. & Seoane-Camba, J. (1962), Seoane-Camba 1965, Ballesteros 1981, Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Pérez-Cirera & Maldonado 1982, Fernández & Niell 1982, Fernández, Niell & Anadón 1983, Sierra & Fernández 1984, Gallardo & al. 1985, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Flores-Moya, Vera-Gonzalez & Conde 1989, Fernández & Miyares 1989, Fernández, Gutiérrez & Rico 1990, Fernández & Menéndez 1991, Conde Poyales 1992, Rodríguez-Prieto & Polo, L. 1996, Rodriguez-Prieto et al. 1997, Rodriguez-Prieto & Polo Albertí 1998).

North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977), Florida (Taylor 1960, Dawes 1974), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), North Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991).

Caribbean Islands: West Indies (Taylor 1960).

South America: Brazil (Oliveira Filho 1977), Chile (Taylor 1939, Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Africa: Mauritius (Børgesen 1946), Morocco (Dangeard 1949), Tunisia (Meñez & Mathieson 1981, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987).

Indian Ocean Islands: Rodrigues Island (Dickie 1879).

Middle East: Israel (Einav 2007), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993).

South-east Asia: Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987).

Asia: Japan (Holmes 1896, Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Adams 1994, Adams 1997).

Antarctic and Antarctic islands: Ant./Subantarctic and islands (Papenfuss 1964).

(as Zignoa ramulosa (J.E.Smith) Trevisan)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha ramulosa var. spinosa Kützing)
Africa: Morocco (Dangeard 1949).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha complanata var. crinita (Nees) Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. ramulosa (J.E.Smith) Rabenhorst)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha gelatinosa Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. linkiana (Greville) Areschoug)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. mucosa P.Crouan & H.Crouan)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha spinescens Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva clathrata f. prostrata Le Jolis)
Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Moro & al. 2011).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva clathrata f. gracilis Le Jolis)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha welwitschii J.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. crinita (Nees) Hauck)
North America: Alaska (Lindstrom 1977), California (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976, Silva 1979).

Central America: Belize (Norris & Bucher 1982).

Asia: Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Easter Island (Santelices & Abbott 1987).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. prostrata (Le Jolis) Batters)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata var. gracilis (Le Jolis) Batters)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Phillips 1997).

(as Enteromorpha ramulosa var. tenerrima Schiffner)
Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha clathrata f. linkiana (Greville) V.J.Chapman)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha prolifera var. crinita (Nees) V.J.Chapman)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Enteromorpha muscoides (Clemente) Cremades)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Schneider 2003), Canary Islands (Guadalupe et al. 1995, Haroun & al. 2002, Aldanondo-Aristizábal, Domínguez-Alvarez & Gil-Rodríguez 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Moro & al. 2011), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, Haroun & al. 2002).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Gallardo & al. 1993), Black Sea (Gallardo & al. 1993), Britain (Hardy & Guiry 2003), Corsica (Gallardo & al. 1993), France (Gallardo & al. 1993), Greece (Gallardo & al. 1993), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Italy (Gallardo & al. 1993, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999), Spain (Gallardo & al. 1993, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Peña & Bárbara 2002).

North America: Maine (Mathieson & al. 2001).

Africa: Algeria (Gallardo & al. 1993), Kenya (Silva & al. 1996), Mauritius (Silva & al. 1996), Morocco (Gallardo & al. 1993, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001, Benhissoune, Boudouresque & Verlaque 2001), Mozambique (Bandeira, António & Critchley 2001), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva & al. 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005), Tunisia (Gallardo & al. 1993).

Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Nicobar Islands (Silva & al. 1996), Réunion (Silva & al. 1996), Rodrigues Island (Silva & al. 1996, De Clerck & al. 2004).

Middle East: Turkey (Gallardo & al. 1993).

South-west Asia: India (Sahoo et al. 2001, Gupta 2012), Pakistan (Silva & al. 1996), Sri Lanka (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva & al. 1996), Singapore (Silva & al. 1996).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Papua New Guinea (Coppejans & al. 2001).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

Key references
Bae, H.B. (2010). Ulotrichales, Ulvales. In: Algal flora of Korea. Volume 1, Number 1. Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae: Ulotrichales, Ulvales, Cladophorales, Bryopsidales. Marine green algae. (Bae, E.H., Kim, H.-S., Kwon, C.-J., Hwang, I.-K., Kiim, G.H. & Klochkova, T.A. Eds), pp. 7-52. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Belous, O.S., Titlyanova, T.V. & Titlyanov, E.A. (2013). Morskiye rasteniya bukhty Troitsy i smezhnykh akvatorii radno (Zaliv Petra Velikogo, Yaponskoye more) [Marine plants of Trinity Bay and adjacent waters (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)]. pp. 263, profusely illustrated. Vladivostok: Dal'nauka. [in Russian]

Brodie, J., Maggs, C.A. & John, D.M. (2007). Green seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. pp. [i-v], vi-xii, 1-242, 101 figs. London: British Phycological Society.

Burova, O.V., Tsarenko, P.M., Kovalenko, O.V., Mikhailyuk, T.I., Petlovany, O.A., Lilitska, G.G. & Bilous, O.P. (2011). Ulvophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 20-61. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., & Alongi, G. (2014). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Chlorophyta. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 47: 11-436.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, 109 pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 2 Brunalger (Phaeophyceae) og Grønalger (Chlorophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 8: [1]-476, col. figs and distributional maps.

Norris, J.N. (2010). Marine algae of the Northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: i-x, 1-276.

Pedroche, F.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar-Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar-Rosas, R. (2005). Catálogo de las algas marinas bentónicas del Pacífico de México. I. Chlorophycota. pp. i-viii, 17-146. Ensenada, México: Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Sfriso, A. (2011). Chlorophyta multicellulari e fanerogame acquatiche. Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-318, pls 1-94. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Skelton, P.A. & South, G.R. (2007). The benthic marine algae of the Samoan Archipelago, South Pacific, with emphasis on the Apia District. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 132: 1-350.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Titlyanov, E.A. & Titlyanova, T.V. (2012). Morskiye rasteniya stran Aziatsko-Tikhookeanskogo regiona, ikh ispol'zovaniye i kul'tivirovaniye [Marine plants of the Asian Pacific Region countries, their use and cultivation]. pp. 376, 52 numbered figures, 162 plates. Vladivostok: Dalnauka & A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. [in Russian]

Created: 26 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 September 2021.

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