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Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing 1866

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Gonyaulacaceae
Genus Gonyaulax


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Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing
This genus contains species which have a very thick, armoured theca. The girdle is conspicuously offset.. 08 Feb 2017. © Robin Raine (Robin.Raine@nuigalway.ie).


Publication details
Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing 1866: 382

Published in: Diesing, K.M. (1866). Revision der Prothelminthen. Abtheilung: Mastigophoren. Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. Abt. 1, Mineralogie, Botanik, Zoologie, Anatomie, Geologie und Paläontologie 52: 287-401.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Gonyaulax.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Peridinium spiniferum Claparède & Lachmann

Type information
Type locality: North Sea, near Glesnaesholm, W. Norway (Index Nominum Algarum).

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), spine-bearing (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Peridinium spiniferum Claparède & Lachmann 1859

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Spiniferites ramosus (Ehrenberg) Mantell 1854
Peridinium levanderi Lemmermann 1900
Gonyaulax levanderi (Lemmermann) Paulsen 1907
Gonyaulax spinifera var. levanderi (Lemmermann) Lindeman 1924
Nematosphaeropsis balcombiana Deflandre & Cookson 1955
Tectatodinium pellitum Wall 1967
Spiniferites mirabilis (M.R.Rossignol) Sarjeant 1974

Usage notes
Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017). - (19 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine/freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Spiniferites ramosus (Ehrenberg) Mantell)
Middle East: Turkey (Balkis et al. 2016).

(as Gonyaulax spinifera (Claparède & Lachmann) Diesing)
Arctic: Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Caroppo et al. 2017).

Atlantic Islands: Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, Moro & al. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Vilicic, Marasovic & Miokovic 2002), Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Black Sea (Goméz & Boicenco 2004, BSPC Editorial Board 2014, Krakhmalnyi et al. 2018, Zotov 2018), Britain (Parke & Dixon 1976, Dodge 1981), Georgia (Barinova & al. 2011), Greece (Ignatiades 2012), Helgoland (Kraberg & al. 2019), Ireland (Pybus, Mc Grath, O'Hea & Dunne 1986), Mediterranean (Gómez 2003), Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015), Portugal (Moita & Vilarinho 1999), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Sweden (Lundholm et al. 2011 ).

North America: Mexico (Atlantic) (Merino-Virgilio & al. 2013), Mexico (Pacific) (Okolodkov & Gárate Lizárraga 2006, Torres-Ariño & al. 2019), Nova Scotia (Kim, Garbary & McLachlan 2004), Virginia (Makinen & Moisan 2012).

Central America: Gulf of California (Gárate-Lizárraga & al. 2014, Gárate-Lizárraga & al. 2014).

South America: Brazil (Odebrecht 2010), Chile (Díaz et al. 2018 ), Colombia (Lozano-Duque & al. 2011).

Africa: Mauritania (Zonneveld et al. 2010).

Middle East: Egypt (Nassar & Khairy 2014, Abbass, Madkour & Abu-El-Regal 2018), Turkey (Balkis et al. 2016, Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: Lebanon (Lakkis 2013).

Asia: Caspian Sea (Bagheri & Fallahi 2014), China (Liu 2008), Korea (Kim & al. 2004), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014, Shevchenko & al. 2019), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Gail 1950).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (McCarthy 2013), New Zealand (Taylor 1974, Chang & al. 2012, Rhodes & al. 2019).

World: World (Gómez 2005, Gómez 2012).

(as Gonyaulax levanderi (Lemmermann) Paulsen)
Asia: Russia (Sea of Japan) (Gail 1950).

(as Nematosphaeropsis balcombiana Deflandre & Cookson)
Europe: Ireland (Pybus, Mc Grath, O'Hea & Dunne 1986).

(as Tectatodinium pellitum Wall)
Middle East: Turkey (Balkis et al. 2016).

(as Spiniferites mirabilis (M.R.Rossignol) Sarjeant)
Europe: Ireland (Pybus, Mc Grath, O'Hea & Dunne 1986).

Middle East: Turkey (Balkis et al. 2016 ).

Key references
Carty, S. (2014). Freshwater dinoflagellates of North America. pp. [i]-viii, [2], [1]-260, 153 figs. Ithaca & London: Comstock Publishing Associates. A division of Cornell University Press.

Dodge, J.D. (1982). Marine dinoflagellates of the British Isles. pp. 1-303, 35 figs, pls I-VIII. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Dodge, J.D. (1985). Atlas of dinoflagellates. A scanning electron microscope survey. pp. [i]-vii, [1]-119. Farrand Press.

Ellegaard, M., Daugbjerg, N., Rochon, A., Lewis, J. & Harding, I. (2003). Morphological and LSU rDNA sequence variation wihin the Gonyaulax spinifer-Spiniferites group (Dinophyceae) and proposal of G. elongata comb. nov. and G. membranacea comb. nov. Phycologia 42(2): 151-164, 54 figs, 4 tables.

Kim, K.Y., Garbary D.J. & McLachlan, J.L. (2004). Phytoplankton dynamics in Pomquet Harbour, Nova Scotia: a lagoon in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Phycologia 43: 311-328.

Kim, S., Park, M.G., Yih, W. & Coats, D.W. (2004). Infection of the bloom-forming, thecate dinoflagellates Alexandrium affine and Gonyaulax spinifera by two strains of Amoebophrya (Dinophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 815-822, 3 figs.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Paulsen O. (1907). The Peridiniales of the Danish waters. Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for Havundersøgelser Serie: Plankton 1(5): 1-26, 33 figs.

Schiller, J. (1935). Dinoflagellatae (Peridineae). In: Dr. L. Rabenhosrst's Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz, 2. Aufl. X. Band, 3. Abt. 2 Teil. ( Eds), pp. 1-320. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M.B.H..

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 26 June 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 5185 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Gárate-Lizárraga, I., Muñetón-Gómez, M.S., Pérez-Cruz, B. & Díaz-Ortíz, J.A. (2014). Bloom of Gonyaulax spinifera (Dinophyceae: Gonyaulacales) in Ensenada de La Paz Lagoon, Gulf of California. CICIMAR Oceanides 29(1): 11-18.
Hansen, G., Moestrup, Ø. & Roberts, K.R. (1996). Fine structural observations on Gonyaulax spinifera (Dinophyceae), with special emphasis on the flagellar apparatus.. Phycologia 35: 354-366, 45 figs.
Kim, S., Park, M.G., Yih, W. & Coats, D.W. (2004). Infection of the bloom-forming, thecate dinoflagellates Alexandrium affine and Gonyaulax spinifera by two strains of Amoebophrya (Dinophyta). Journal of Phycology 40: 815-822, 3 figs.
Riaux-Gobin, C. & Lassus, P. (1989). Conditions hydroclimatiques d'une eau colorée á Gonyaulax spinifera (dinoflagellé) dans une ria du Nord-Finistére. Botanica Marina 32: 491-498.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 September 2021.

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