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Karenia bicuneiformis Botes, Sym & Pitcher 2003

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Kareniaceae
Genus Karenia


Publication details
Karenia bicuneiformis Botes, Sym & Pitcher 2003: 566, figs 10-19

Published in: Botes, L., Sym, S.D. & Pitcher, G.C. (2003). Karenia cristata sp. nov. and Karenia bicuneiformis sp. nov. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae): two new Karenia species from the South African coast. Phycologia 42: 563-571.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Karenia is Karenia brevis (C.C.Davis) Gert Hansen & Moestrup.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Type information
Type locality: Gordon’s Bay, South Africa (Botes, Sym & Pitcher 2003: 568). Holotype: Fig. 14 (epitype) (Botes, Sym & Pitcher 2003: 568). Notes: Isotype: SEM stub containing specimens of K. bicuneiformis(Accession number J 100090) was submitted to the Moss Herbarium, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Karenia bidigitata Haywood & Steidinger 2004

Nomenclatural notes
Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017). - (19 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Cells dorso-ventrally flattened, c. 36.25 microns (33.88-38.62 microns, n = 15) long, c. 33.83 microns (31.3-36.36 microns, n = 15) wide and c. 5 microns (n = 1) deep. The hypocone is w-shaped and the epicone is sharply conical, giving the cell a markedly angular outline. Each lobe of the hypocone can be indented at times. The apical groove is straight, extending down to the cingulum-sulcus junction on the ventral side of the cell and only a short distance on the dorsal side of the cell. The nucleus is oval and on the left side of th hypocone. An extension to the sulcus is present on the epicone. The cingulum is displaced by one cingulum width. Chloroplasts are numerous, yellow-green and variable in shape. Preserved chloroplasts become circular.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Gárate-Lizárraga, I. (2014). Unarmored dinoflagellates present during a bloom of Ceratoperidinium falcatum in Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California. Dinoflagelados desnudos presentes durante un florecimiento de Ceratoperidinium falcatum en Bahía de La Paz, Golfo de California. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia 49: 577-587.

Gómez, F. (2011). Diversity and distribution of the dinoflagellates Brachidinium, Asterodinium and Microceratium (Brachidiniales, Dinophyceae) in the open Mediterranean Sea. Acta Botanica Croatica 70: 209-214.

Gómez, F., Nagahama, Y., Takayama, H. & Furuya, K. (2005). Is Karenia a synonym of Asterodinium-Brachidinium? (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). Acta Botanica Croatica 64: 263-274.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Created: 04 February 2004 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1018 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Botes, L., Sym, S.D. & Pitcher, G.C. (2003). Karenia cristata sp. nov. and Karenia bicuneiformis sp. nov. (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae): two new Karenia species from the South African coast. Phycologia 42: 563-571.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 September 2021.

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