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Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow 1844

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Chlorophyceae
Order Chlamydomonadales
Family Haematococcaceae
Genus Haematococcus


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Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
Resting stage, birdbath, Northampton, UK, BF image.. 04 Jun 2012. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
Motile stage, bird bath, Northampton, UK. BF image.. 04 Jun 2012. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
India. Sathi Ravi Kanth Reddy. © Sathi Ravi Kanth Reddy.

Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA: birdbath, cyst. 07 Apr 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA: birdbath. 07 Apr 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA: birdbath. 07 Apr 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).


Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA: birdbath
© Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net)

Publication details
Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow 1844: 415, 537, pls XXIV, XXV [24, 25]

Published in: Flotow, J. von (1844). Beobachtungen über Haematococcus pluvialis. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher 12(Abt. 2): 413-606, 3 pls.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Haematococcus.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Haematococcus lacustris (Girod-Chantrans) Rostafinski

Type information
Type locality: "on the footpaths between Hirschberg and Grunau" [Grunau, near Hirshberg in Silesia, Germany] (Index Nominum Algarum: 413). Lectotype: Flotow (1844), pl. XXV, fig. 70: (designated in support of lectotype) cryopreserved strain SAG192.80 (epitype) (Allewaert et al. 2015: 591). Notes: "On a small botanical excursion with Dr. Körher on 6 September 1841, we found in the shallow cavity of a granite slab ... the bridge over the moat and the on the footpaths between Hirschberg and the neighbouring village of Grunau ... forms in stagnant rainwater , a red matter ..." [from the German]

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), produced by rain.

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Volvox lacustris Girod-Chantrans 1802

Nomenclatural notes
Pocock (1960) disagrees with Droop (1956) over the status of this species and considers H. lacustris to be the correct name. - (27 Jun 2013) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Gutman et al. (2009) suggest that the chytrid Paraphysoderma sedebokerensis (nom. prov.) is highly specific for Haematococcus pluvialis, but has a limited capacity to infect other green algae. - (9 Mar 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Cosmopolitan; a common and widely distributed species in small rock pools, cattle troughs, ponds and ornamental bird baths, especially in harder waters, including pools enriched with zinc (Pentecost in John et al. 2002). - (26 Jun 2013) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Grown commercially for astaxanthin and other carotenoids. - (26 Jun 2013) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

emend Wille 1903 (Pentecost in John et al. 2002: 319).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow)
Arctic: Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Klochkova et al. 2013 ).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Xavier et al. 2018).

Europe: Britain (Pentecost 2002, Whitton & al. 2003, John, Whitton & Brook 2011), France (Anon. 2017), Germany (Mauch & Schmedtje 2003, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016, Stutz & Mattern (eds) & al. 2018, Täuscher 2019), Netherlands (Veen & al. 2015), Portugal (Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998), Romania (Caraus 2017), Scandinavia (Karlason & al. 2018), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Álvarez Cobelas 1982, Alvárez Cobelas & Gallardo 1986, Aboal 1988b, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Fernández Lozano & al. 2015), Sweden (Skuja 1948, Skuja 1956).

North America: Mexico (Figueroa-Torres & al. 2015), Québec (Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985, Damiani et al 2006), Brazil (Menezes & Bicudo 2008, Menezes 2010).

Middle East: Turkey (Aysel 2005).

South-west Asia: India (Gupta 2012), Khandesh (Jaiswal 2017).

Asia: China (Hu & Wei 2006), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: New Zealand (Broady & al. 2012).

Pacific Islands/Pacific Ocean: Hawaiian Islands (Sherwood 2004).

Source of current name
Nakada, T. & Ota, S. (2016). What is the correct name for the type of Haematococcus Flot. (Volvocales, Chlorophyceae)?. Taxon 65(2): 343-348, 4 figures.

Key references
Allewaert, C.C., Vanormelingen, P., Pröschold, T., Gómez, P.I., González, M.A., Bilcke, G., D'Hondt, S. & Vyverman W. (2015). Species diversity in European Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). Phycologia 54(6): 583-598.

Buchheim, M.A., Sutherland, D.M., Buchheim, J.A. & Wolf, M. (2013). The blood alga: phylogeny of Haemotococcus (Chlorophyceae) inferred from ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 318-329.

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Korshikov, A.A. (1938). Volvocineae. In: Vyznachnyk prisnovodnykh vodorostej URSR [Vyp] Vol. IV. (Rolla, J.V. Eds), pp. 1-184. Kyjv [Kiev]: Akademiyi Nauk URSR. [in Ukrainian]

Massjuk, N.P., Lilitska, G.G. & Kapustin, D.O. (2011). Chlamydomonadales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 157-218. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..

Pegg, C., Wolf, M., Alanagreh, L., Portman, R. & Buchheim, M.A. (2015). Morphological diversity masks phylogenetic similarity of Ettlia and Haematococcus (Chlorophyceae). Phycologia 54(4): 385-397.

Pentecost, A. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Volvocales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 381-409. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skuja, H. (1956). Taxonomische und biologische Studien über das Phytoplankton schwedischer Binnengewässer. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Series IV 16(3): 1-404, + 63 pls.

Wille, N. (1903). Algologische Notizen IX-XIV. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne 41: 89-185.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 14 March 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 21566 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Abomohra, A. E.-F., Sheekh, M.E-S. & Hanelt, D. (2016). Protoplast fusion and genetic recombination between Ochromonas danica (Chrysophyta) and Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta). Phycologia 55(1): 65-71.
Allewaert, C.C., Vanormelingen, P., Pröschold, T., Gómez, P.I., González, M.A., Bilcke, G., D'Hondt, S. & Vyverman W. (2015). Species diversity in European Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). Phycologia 54(6): 583-598.
Fábregas, J., Domínguez, A., Maseda, A. & Otero, A. (2003). Interactions between irradiance and nutrient availability during astaxanthin accumulation and degradation in Haematococcus pluvialis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 61: 545-551.
Fan, L., Vonshak, A. & Boussiba, S. (1994). Effect of temperature and irradiance on growth of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 30: 829-833, 6 figs.
Fernández Lozano, J., Guillén Oterino, A., Gutierrez Alonso, G., Abel Flores, J. & Pérez Turrado, J. (2015). Presencia de Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow, 1844) en la provincia de Zamora (Haematococcaceae). Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. Sec. Biol. 109: 101-107.
Flotow, J. von (1844). Beobachtungen über Haematococcus pluvialis. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher 12(Abt. 2): 413-606, 3 pls.
Hagen, C., Grünewald, K., Schmidt, S. & Müller, J. (2000). Accumulation of secondary carotenoids in flagellates of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) is accompanied by an increase in per unit chlorophyll productivity of photosynthesis. European Journal of Phycology 35: 75-82, 5 figs, 2 tables.
Han, D., Wang, J., Sommerfeld, M. & Hu, Q. (2012). Susceptibility and protective mechanisms of motile and non motile cells of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) to photooxidative stress. Journal of Phycology 48(3): 693-705.
Harker, M. & Young, A.J. (1995). Inhibition of astaxanthin synthesis in the green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis. European Journal of Phycology 30: 179-187, 8 figs, 3 tables.
He, B., Hou, L., Zhang, F., Cong, X., Wang, Z., Guo, Y., Shi, J., Jiang, M., Zhang, X. & Zang, X. (2020). Ultrastructural changes of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) in process os astaxanthin accumulation and cell damage under condition of high light with acetate. Algae 35(3): 253-262.
Kathiresan, S., Chandrashekar, A., Ravishankar, G.A. & Sarada, R. (2009). Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). Journal of Phycology 45(3): 642-649, 6 figs, 3 tables.
Kim, Z.-H., Lee, H.-S. & Lee, C.-G. (2009). Red and blue photons can enhance the production of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Algae 24(2): 121-127, 4 figs, 2 tables.
Klochkova, T.A., Kwak, M.S., Han, J.W., Motomura, T., Nagasato, C. & Kim, G.H. (2013). Cold-tolerant strain of Haematococcus pluvialis (Haematococcaceae, Chlorophyta) from Blomstrandhalvoya (Svalbard). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 28 (2): 185-192.
Kobayashi, M., Kakizono, T. & Nagai, S. (1991). Astaxanthin production by a green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis accompanied with morphological changes in acetate media. J Ferment Bioeng 71(5): 335-339.
Liu, J., Chen, J., Chen, Z., Qin, S. & Huang, Q. (2016). Isolation and characterization of astaxanthin-hyperproducing mutants of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) produced by dielectric barrier discharge plasm. Phycologia 55(6): 650-658.
Lund, J.W.G. (1950). Algological notes IV-VI. IV. Motility in unicellular and colonial Myxophyceae and records of the occurrence of some of the species in Great Britain. V. Chlamydomonas terricola Gerloff. VI. The distribution and ecology of Stephanosphaera pluvialis cohn with a note on Haematococcus lacustris Flotow e. Wille. Naturalist, Hull 1950: 143-148.
Meng, C., Liang, C.W., Su, Z.L., Qin, S. & Tseng, C.K. (2006). There are two 5'-flanking regions of bkt encoding beta-carotene ketolase in Haematococcus pluvialis. Phycologia 45: 218-224.
Nogami, S., Ohnuki, S. & Ohya, Y. (2014). Hyperspectral imaging techniques for the characterization of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 50(5): 939-947.
Peled, E., Pick, U., Zarka, A., Shimoni, E., Leu, S. & Boussiba, A.S. (2012). Light-induced oil globule migration in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 48(5): 1209-1219.
Pringsheim, E.G. (1951). Smärre uppsatser och meddelanden. Haematococcus droebakensis und Stephanosphaera pluvialis am Erken-See in Schweden. Botaniska Notiser : .
Qiu, B. & Li, Y. (2005). Photosynthetic acclimation and photoprotective mechanism of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) during the accumulation of secondary carotenoids at elevated irradiation. Phycologia 45: 117-126.
Reinecke, D.L., Zarka, A., Leu, S. & Boussiba, S. (2016). Cloning, molecular characterization, and phylogeny of two evolutionary distinct glutamine synthetase isoforms in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 52(6): 961-972.
Rioboo, C. Gonzalez-Barreiro, O., Abalde, J. & Cid, A. (2011). Flow cytometric analysis of the encystment process induced by paraquat exposure in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). European Journal of Phycology 46(2): 89-97.
Strittmatter, M., Rad-Menéndez, C. & Gachon, C.M.M. (2020). Cryopreservation of the parasitic and saprophytic life stage of the blastocladialean pathogen Paraphysoderma sedebokerense infecting the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis and Scenedesmus dimorphus. Phycologia 59(6): 566-570.
Tan, S., Cunningham, F.X., Jr, Youmans, M., Grabowski, B., Sun, Z. & Gantt, E. (1995). Cytochrome f loss in astaxanthin-accumulating red cells of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae): comparison of photosynthetic activity, photosynthetic enzymes, and thylakoid membrane polypeptides in red and green cells. Journal of Phycology 31: 897-905, 6 figs, 1 table.
Torzillo, G., Göksan, T., Isik, O. & Gökpinar, S. (2005). Photon irradiance required to support optimal growth and interrelations between irradiance and pigment composition in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. European Journal of Phycology 40: 233-240.
Triki, A., Maillard, P. & Gudin, C. (1997). Gametogenesis in Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow (Volvocales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 36: 190-194, 8 figs, 1 table.
Wang, B., Zarka, A., Trebst, A. & Boussiba, S. (2003). Astaxanthin accumulation in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) as an active photoprotective process under high irradiance. Journal of Phycology 39: 1116-1124.
Wang, J., Sommerfeld, M.R., Lu, C. & Hu, Q. (2013). Combined effect of initial biomass density and nitrogen concentration on growth and astaxanthin production of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyta) in outdoor cultivation. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 28(2): 193-202.
Zhekiseva, M., Boussiba, S., Khozin-Goldberg, I., Zarka, A. & Cohen, Z. (2002). Accumulation of oleic acid in Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) under nitrogen starvation or high light is correlated with that of astaxanthin esters. Journal of Phycology 38: 325-331.
Zhekisheva, M., Zarka, A., Khozin-Goldberg, I., Cohen, Z. & Boussiba, S. (2005). Inhibition of astaxanthin synthesis under high radiance does not abolish triacylglycerol accumulation in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 41: 819-826.
Zlotnik (Schmerler), I., Sukenik, A. & Dubinsky, Z. (1993). Physiological and photosynthetic changes during the formation of red aplanospores in the chlorophyte Haematococcus pluvialis. Journal of Phycology 29: 463 -469, 1 fig, 2 tables.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 September 2021.

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