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Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze 1898

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Phaeophyceae
Subclass Fucophycidae
Order Ectocarpales
Family Scytosiphonaceae
Genus Petalonia

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Albany, Western Australia. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Cape of Good Hope, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. 18 Nov 2009. M.D. Guiry. © M.D. Guiry.

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Galicia, Spain. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Galicia, Spain. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Galicia, Spain. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Galicia, Spain. 21 Oct 2011. Ignacio Bárbara. © Ignacio Bárbara (barbara@udc.es).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Albany, Western Australia. 25 May 2011. John Huisman. © John Huisman (j.huisman@murdoch.edu.au).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Sotogawa-cho, Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Chiba University. Hideki Haga. © Hideki Haga (902180827@office.chiba-u.jp).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Sotogawa-cho, Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Chiba University. Hideki Haga. © Hideki Haga (902180827@office.chiba-u.jp).

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze
Sotogawa-cho, Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Chiba University. Hideki Haga. © Hideki Haga (902180827@office.chiba-u.jp).

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Pterosiphonia bipinnata (Postels & Ruprecht) Falkenberg

Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze Sotogawa-cho, Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Chiba University. Section of frond
© Hideki Haga (902180827@office.chiba-u.jp)

Publication details
Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze 1898: 419

Published in: Kuntze, O. (1898). Revisio generum plantarum. Pars III (3). pp. 1-576. Leipzig, London, Milano, New York, Paris: Arthur Felix, Dulau & Co., U. Hoepli, Gust. A. Schechert, Charles Klincksierck.
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Publication date: 28 Sep 1898

Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Petalonia is Petalonia debilis (Kützing) Derbès & Solier.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Fucus fascia O.F.Müller

Type information
Type locality: near Kristiansand, Norway (Silva & al. 1996: 632). Notes: Womersley (1987: 292) gives the following data: Type from Christiansund, Norway; probably non-existent.

Origin of species name
Noun (Latin), a bundle or band (Mathieson & Dawes 2017).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Fucus fascia O.F.Müller 1778
Laminaria fascia (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh 1817
Ulva fascia (O.F.Müller) Lyngbye 1819
Ilea fascia (O.F.Müller) Fries 1835
Phyllitis fascia (O.F.Müller) Kützing 1843
Saccharina fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze 1891

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Phyllitis fascia var. tenuissima Batters
Ulva fascia var. tenuior Lyngbye 1819
Punctaria caespitosa J.Agardh 1836
Phycolapathum cuneatum Kützing 1845
Laminaria caespitosa (J.Agardh) J.Agardh 1848
Phyllitis fascia var. curvata Kützing 1849
Phyllitis debilis Kützing 1849
Punctaria debilis (Kützing) Trevisan 1849
Petalonia debilis (Kützing) Derbès & Solier 1850
Phyllitis caespitosa Le Jolis 1863
Scytosiphon fascia (O.F.Müller) P.Crouan & H.Crouan 1867
Phyllitis fascia var. caespitosa (J.Agardh) Farlow 1881
Phyllitis fascia var. debilis (C.Agardh) Hauck 1883
Phyllitis fascia var. latior Hariot 1889
Saccharina caespitosa (J.Agardh) Kuntze 1891
Ilea caespitosa (J.Agardh) Nordstedt 1912
Ralfsia californica Setchell & N.L.Gardner 1924
Ilea fascia f. debilis (Kützing) Setchell & N.L.Gardner 1924
Ilea fascia f. caespitosa (J.Agardh) Setchell & N.L.Gardner 1924
Petalonia fascia var. debilis (Kützing) Hamel 1937
Ilea fascia f. crispa A.D.Zinova 1949

Taxonomic notes
Various Stagularia clavata-like stages have been reported in the life history of Petalonia fascia (see Fletcher 1987, p. 253, 257). The situation in regard to synonymy remains confused and Sragularia clavata is treated as a separate species here (Guiry, pers. comm.). Wynne (1969) considered thalli of Stragularia californica (as Ralfsia californica) as the sporophyte of Petalonia fascia.

General environment
This is a marine species.

Common names

(as Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze)
English: Sea Petals (Chapman & Chapman 1980), Broad Leaf Weed (Bunker & al. 2010).

Japanese: Seiyohabanori (Madlener 1977).

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Phyllitis fascia var. tenuissima Batters)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Fucus fascia O.F.Müller)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Laminaria fascia (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva fascia (O.F.Müller) Lyngbye)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ulva fascia var. tenuior Lyngbye)
Europe: Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ilea fascia (O.F.Müller) Fries)
Atlantic Islands: Tristan da Cunha (Baardseth 1941).

Europe: Sweden (Kylin 1947).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Punctaria caespitosa J.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phyllitis fascia (O.F.Müller) Kützing)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931), Channel Islands (Lyle 1920), Ireland (Adams 1907, Adams 1908, Cotton 1912), Sweden (Kylin 1907).

North America: Alaska (Saunders 1901).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phycolapathum cuneatum Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Laminaria caespitosa (J.Agardh) J.Agardh)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phyllitis fascia var. curvata Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phyllitis debilis Kützing)
Europe: Spain (Miranda 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Petalonia debilis (Kützing) Derbès & Solier)
South America: Peru (Dawson, Acleto & Foldvik 1964).

Africa: South Africa (Price, John & Lawson 1978).

(as Phyllitis caespitosa Le Jolis)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Scytosiphon fascia (O.F.Müller) P.Crouan & H.Crouan)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phyllitis fascia var. debilis (C.Agardh) Hauck)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Phyllitis fascia var. latior Hariot)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Petalonia fascia (O.F.Müller) Kuntze)
Arctic: Barents Sea (Malavenda 2018), Canada (Arctic) (Taylor 1957, Lee 1980), Svalbard (Spitsbergen) (Gulliksen & al. 1999, Fredriksen & Kile 2012, Fredriksen & al. 2019), White Sea (Smirnova & Mikhailova 2013, Garbary & Tarakhovskaya 2013).

Atlantic Islands: Azores (Neto 1994), Canary Islands (Haroun & al. 2002, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John & al. 2004, Moro & al. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), E. Greenland (Pedersen 1976), Greenland (Pedersen 2011), Iceland (Caram & Jónsson 1972).

Europe: Adriatic Sea (Giaccone 1978, Ercegovic 1980, Ribera & al. 1992), Atlantic France (Burel, Le Duff & Ar Gall 2019), Balearic Islands (Pericás 1984, Ribera Siguán & Gómez Garreta 1985, Cremades 1989, Ribera & al. 1992), Baltic Sea (Nielsen & al. 1995, Kontula & Fürhapter 2012), Belgium (Coppejans & Kling 1995), Britain (Fletcher 1987, Hardy & Guiry 2003, Matsumoto et al. 2014, Brodie & al. 2015, Bunker & al. 2017), Corsica (Boudouresque & Perret 1977, Ribera & al. 1992), Denmark (Larsen & Sand-Jensen 2006, Nielsen & Lundsteen 2019), Faroe Islands (Irvine 1982, Nielsen & Gunnarsson 2001), France (Feldmann 1937, Dubois 1972, Ben Maiz, Boudouresque, Lauret & Riouall 1988, Ribera & al. 1992, Coppejans & Kling 1995, Rousseau & al. 2000, Verlaque 2001, Dizerbo & Herpe 2007, Silberfeld et al. 2011, Anon. 2017), France (Breizh) (Feldmann 1954, Loiseaux-de Goër & Noailles 2008), Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996, Matsumoto et al. 2014), Greece (Gerloff & Geissler 1974, Athanasiadis 1987, Ribera & al. 1992, Tsiamis & al. 2013, Tsiamis & al. 2013), Helgoland (Bartsch & Kuhlenkamp 2000), Ireland (Cullinane 1971, Pybus 1977, Guiry 1978, De Valéra & al. 1979, Fletcher 1987, Morton 1994, Guiry 2012, Bunker & al. 2017), Italy (Giaccone 1969, Ribera & al. 1992, Ribera & al. 1992, Furnari, Cormaci & Serio 1999, Rindi, Sartoni & Cinelli 2002), Netherlands (Stegenga & Mol 1983, Stegenga & al. 1997, Stegenga, Kaaremans & Simons 2007), Norway (Jaasund 1965, Rueness 1997, Brattegard & Holte 2001, Matsumoto et al. 2014), Portugal (De Mesquita Rodrigues 1963, Ardré 1970, Cremades & al., 2002, Araújo & al. 2009, Bárbara et al. 2012), Scandinavia (Athanasiadis 1996, Karlason & al. 2018), Spain (Romero Martinengo & Romero Martinengo 1982, Gallardo & al. 1985, Ramos Esplá 1985, Rodriguez Prieto & Polo Alberti 1988, Ribera & al. 1992, Granja, Cremades & Barbara 1992, Conde Poyales 1992, Flores-Moya et al. 1994, Guillermes, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1994, Flores-Moya et al. 1995, Bárbara, Cremades & Pérez-Cirera 1995, Bárbara & Cremades 1996, Cremades, Bárbara, Granja & Veiga 1997, Veiga, Cremades & Bárbara 1998, Peña & Bárbara 2002, Valenzuela Miranda 2002, Bárbara & al., 2003, Sánchez, Fernández & Rico 2003, Gorostiaga & al., 2004, Bárbara & al. 2005, Diaz-Tapia & Bárbara 2005, Cires Rodriguez & Cuesta Moliner 2010, Hernández et al. 2010), Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo & al. 2016), Veneto (Sfriso 2011).

North America: Alaska (Scagel & al. 1989, Lindeberg & Lindstrom 2010), Aleutian Islands (Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), Baja California (Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), British Columbia (Scagel & al. 1989), California (Silva 1979, Scagel & al. 1989, Stewart 1991, Miller 2012), Connecticut (Schneider et al. 1979, Kraemer et al. 2017), Florida (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Georgia (Schneider & Searles 1991), Maine (Mathieson & al. 2001), Manitoba (Saunders & McDevit 2013), Mexico (Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), New Hampshire (Mathieson & Hehre 1986), New Jersey (Taylor 1957), Newfoundland (Taylor 1957), North Carolina (Taylor 1957, Taylor 1960, Schneider & Searles 1991), Nova Scotia (Scrosati 2016), Oregon (Hansen 1997, Kogame et al. 2011 ), Oregon and Washington (Hansen et al. 2018), Québec (Taylor 1957), South Carolina (Schneider & Searles 1991), Texas (Wynne 2009, Lehman 2013), Virginia (Humm 1979), Washington (Scagel & al. 1989).

Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2008).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Argentina (Boraso & Zaixso 2011, Asensi & Küpper 2012, Boraso de Zaixso 2013, Croce & al. 2015), Brazil (Joly 1957, Taylor 1960, Joly 1965, Oliveira Filho 1977, Menezes Széchy & Paula 2010), Chile (Santelices 1989, Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Hoffmann & Santelices 1997, Mondragon & Mondragon 2003), Peru (Ramírez & Santelices 1991, Ávila-Peltroche & Padilla-Vallejos 2020), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Uruguay (Coll & Oliveira 1999).

Africa: Algeria (Ould-Ahmed & al. 2013), Libya (Ribera & al. 1992), Morocco (Moussa & al. 2018), Namibia (Rull Lluch 2002, John & al. 2004), Senegal (Price, John & Lawson 1978, John & al. 2004), South Africa (Silva & al. 1996, Stegenga, Bolton & Anderson 1997), Tunisia (Ben Maiz, Boudouresque & Quahchi 1987, Ribera & al. 1992).

Middle East: Cyprus (Taskin & al. 2013, Tsiamis & al. 2014), Egypt (Ribera & al. 1992, Aleem 1993, Shabaka 2018), Israel (Einav 2007, Einav & Israel 2008), Turkey (Güven & Öztig 1971, Güner, Aysel, Sukatar & Öztürk 1985, Ribera & al. 1992, Zeybek, Güner & Aysel 1993, Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & al. 2008 , Taskin & Pedersen 2012, Taskin (ed.) & al. 2019).

South-west Asia: Levant states (Ribera & al. 1992), Pakistan (Silva & al. 1996).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008, Tseng 2009), Commander Islands (Selivanova & Zhigadlova 1997, Klochkova & al. 2020), Japan (Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998, Kogame, Horiguchi & Masuda 1999, Kogame et al. 2011, Matsumoto et al. 2014 , Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015, Titlyanov & al. 2019), Kamchatka (Vozzhinskaja 1965, Klochkova & al. 2009), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Boo 2010, Kogame et al. 2011 ), Russia (Kozhenkova 2009, Kogame et al. 2011 ), Russia (Far East) (Perestenko 1980, Kloczcova 1996, Selivanova 2002), Russia (Sea of Japan) (Kozhenkova 2020), South China Sea (Phang & al. 2016), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Huisman 2019), Lord Howe Island (Kraft 2009), New South Wales (Womersley 1987, Kraft 2009, Carvalho & Eyre 2017, Carvalho et al. 2017), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Kain et al. 2010, Harper & al. 2012), Queensland (Lewis 1985, Cribb 1996, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Kraft 2009, Kraft 2009, Bostock & Holland 2010), South Australia (Womersley 1987), Tasmania (Womersley 1987), Victoria (Womersley 1987), Western Australia (Womersley 1987, Huisman & Walker 1990).

Subantarctic Islands: Îles Kerguelen (Féral & al. 2021), Macquarie Island (Ricker 1987), South Georgia (John & al. 1994, Wells, Brewin & Brickle 2011), South Shetland Islands (Wiencke & Clayton 2002, Quartino & al. 2005).

Antarctic and Antarctic islands: Ant./Subantarctic and islands (Papenfuss 1964).

(as Ilea caespitosa (J.Agardh) Nordstedt)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ralfsia californica Setchell & N.L.Gardner)
North America: Alaska (Scagel & al. 1989), British Columbia (Scagel & al. 1989), California (Scagel & al. 1989), Gulf of California (Dawson 1944), Mexico (Taylor 1945, Pedroche & Sentíes 2020), Oregon (Hansen 1997), Washington (Scagel & al. 1989).

Central America: Mexico (Pacific) (Pedroche & al. 2008).

(as Ilea fascia f. debilis (Kützing) Setchell & N.L.Gardner)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Ilea fascia f. caespitosa (J.Agardh) Setchell & N.L.Gardner)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Petalonia fascia var. debilis (Kützing) Hamel)
Europe: Britain (Newton 1931).

Africa: South Africa (Silva & al. 1996).

Key references
Boo, S.M. & Ko, Y.D. (2012). Marine plants from Korea. pp. [1] 5-233, many col. photographs. Seoul: Marine & Extreme Genome Research Centre Program. [in Korean]

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G., Catra, M., Alongi, G. & Giaccone, G. (2012). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Phaeophyceae. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali di Catania 45: 1-508.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Fletcher, R.L. (1987). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Vol. 3. Fucophyceae (Phaeophyceae). Part 1. pp. [i]-x, [1]-359, 90 figs, 15 pls. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Funk, G. (1955). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Meeresalgen von Neapel: Zugleich mikrophotographischer Atlas. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 25(Suppl.): i-x , 1-178, 36 figs.

Huisman, J.M. (2019). Marine plants of Australia Revised edition. pp. [i]-xviii, [1]-435, numerous col. figs. Crawley Western Australia: UWA Publishing.

Klochkova, N.G., Koroleva, T.N. & Kushidi, A.E. (2009). Atlas vodorosley-makrofitov prikamchatskikh vod [Atlas of algae-macrophytes of Kamchatka waters. Green and brown algae]. Vol. 1 pp. 216, profusely illustrated. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski: Izdaniya KamchatNIRO. [in Russian]

Kraft, G.T. (2009). Algae of Australia. Marine benthic algae of Lord Howe Island and the southern Great Barrier Reef, 2. Brown algae. pp. [i-iv], v-vi, 1-364, 107 figs. Erratum of fig. 73 from vol. 1. Canberra & Melbourne: Australian Biological Resources Study and CSIRO Publishing.

Lindeberg, M.R. & Lindstrom, S.C. (2010). Field guide to the seaweeds of Alaska. pp. [i-]iii-iv, 1-188, numerous col. photographs. Fairbanks: Alaska Sea Grant College Program.

Loiseaux-de Goër, S. & Noailles, M.-C. (2008). Algues de Roscoff. pp. [1]-215, col. figs. Roscoff: Editions de la Station Biologique de Roscoff.

Mathieson, A.C. & Dawes, C.J. (2017). Seaweeds of the Northwest Atlantic. pp. [i]-x, 1-798, 109 pls. Amherst & Boston: University of Massachusetts Press.

Matsumoto, K., Ichihara, K. & Shimada, S. (2014). Taxonomic reinvestigation of Petalonia (Phaeophyceae, Ectocarpales) in southeast of Honshu, Japan, with a description of Petalonia tenuis sp. nov.. Phycologia 53(2): 127-136.

Mondragon, J. & Mondragon, J. (2003). Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Common marine algae from Alaska to Baja California. pp. [i]iv, [1]-97. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers.

Nielsen, R. & Lundsteen, S. (2019). Danmarks havalger Bind 2 Brunalger (Phaeophyceae) og Grønalger (Chlorophyta). Scientia Danica. Series B, Biologica 8: [1]-476, col. figs and distributional maps.

Pedersen, P.M. (2011). Grønlands havalger. pp. [1] 7-208. Copenhagen: Forlaget Epsilon.DK.

Pedroche, P.F., Silva, P.C., Aguilar Rosas, L.E., Dreckmann, K.M. & Aguilar Rosas, R. (2008). Catálogo de las algas benthónicas del Pacífico de México II. Phaeophycota. pp. [i-viii], i-vi, 15-146. Mexicali & Berkeley: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California; University of California Berkeley.

Ricker, R.W. (1987). Taxonomy and biogeography of Macquarie Island seaweeds. pp. [i]-vi, [2], 1-344. London: British Museum (Natural History).

Rodríguez-Prieto, C., Ballesteros, E., Boisset, F. & Afonso-Carrillo, J. (2013). Guía de las macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas del Mediterráneo occidental. pp. [1]-656. Barcelona: Ediciones Omega, S.A..

Sfriso, A. (2011). Ochrophyta (Phaeophyceae e Xanthophyceae). Ambiente di transizione italiani e litorali adiacenti. pp. [1]-234, pls 1-51. Bologna: Arpa Emilia-Romagna.

Womersley, H.B.S. (1987). The marine benthic flora of southern Australia. Part II. pp. [1]-484, 169 figs, 1 table, 8 plates, 4 maps. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printing Division.

Wynne, M.J. (1969). Life history and systematic studies of some Pacific North American Phaeophyceae (brown algae). University of California Publications in Botany 50: 1-88.

Wynne, M.J. (1998). A checklist of benthic marine algae of the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic: first revision. Nova Hedwigia Beihefte 116: [i]-iii, 1-155, 5 figs.

Created: 31 March 1996 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 17 February 2020 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 18077 times since it was created.

Verification of data
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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Flores-Moya, A. & Fernández, J.A. (1998). Photosynthetic use of light and inorganic carbon in air and water by the intertidal alga Petalonia fascia (Scytosiphonales, Phaeophyta). Phycol. Res. 46: 125-130.
Flores-Moya, A., Posudin, Y.I., Fernández, J.A., Figueroa, F.L. & Kawai, H. (2002). Photomovement of the swarmers of the brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria and Petalonia fascia: effect of photon irradiance, spectral composition and UV dose. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 66: 134-140.
Hsiao, S.I.C. (1969). Life history and iodine nutrition of the marine brown alga, Petalonia fascia (O. F. Müll.) Kuntze. Canadian Journal of Botany 47: 1611-1616.
Hsiao, S.I.C. (1970). Light and temperature effects on the growth, morphology, and reproduction of Petalonia fascia. Canadian Journal of Botany 48: 1359-1361.
Katoh, T. & Ehara, T. (1990). Supramolecular assembly of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll-protein complexes isolated from a brown alga, Petalonia fascia - electron microscopic studies. PLANT CEL P 31(4): 439-447.
Kogame, K. (1997). Sexual reproduction and life-history of Petalonia fascia (Scytosiphonales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 36: 389-394.
Lee, K.-H., Cho, J.-H. & Shin, J.-A. (2003). A study on cultivation of Petalonia fascia (Scytosiphonales, Phaeophyta) by vegetative regeneration. Algae 18(4): 333-339, 6 figs, 2 tables, 1 plate.
Rhodes, R.G. & Connell, M.U. (1973). The biology of brown algae on the Atlantic coast of Virginia. II. Petalonia fascia and Scytosiphon lomentaria. Ches. Sci. 14: 211-215.
Roeleveld, J.D., Duisterhof, M. & Vroman, M. (1974). On the year cycle of Petalonia fascia in the Netherlands. Netherl. J. Sea Res. 8: 410-426.
Williams, S.L. & Herbert, S.K. (1989). Transient photosynthetic responses of nitrogen-deprived Petalonia fascia and Laminaria saccharina (Phaeophyta) to ammonium resupply. Journal of Phycology 25: 515-522.
Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y. & Pupo, D. (1994). Estudos in situ e in vitro de fase Ralfsióide Stragularia clavata (Harv. in Hook.) Hamel de Petalonia fascia (O.F. Müller) Kuntze (Scytosiphonales - Phaeophyta). Revista Brasil. Biol. 54: 489-496.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 27 September 2021.

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