156,945 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 22,044 images, 60,671 bibliographic items, 451,249 distributional records.

Botryococcus braunii Kützing

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Trebouxiophyceae
Order Trebouxiales
Family Botryococcaceae
Genus Botryococcus


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Botryococcus braunii Kützing
On bryophyte. Above Breidavik, NW Iceland. DF image.. 28 Oct 2010. © C.F.Carter(chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk,com).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Yardley Chase, Northamptonshire, UK. BF.. 27 Oct 2008. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Yardley Chase, Northamptonshire, UK. BF.. 27 Oct 2008. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Unusual form. Widdybank Fell Upper Teesdale, UK, in Sphagnum. Collected by John O\'Reilly. BF.. 27 Oct 2008. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Anderson Lake, Washington, USA; 400x DIC. 18 May 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Anderson Lake, Washington, USA; 400x DIC. 18 May 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Seattle, Washington, USA; Ship Canal, 1000x DIC. 02 Oct 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Botryococcus braunii Kützing
Kitsap Lake, Washington, USA; 1000x DIC. 12 Oct 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).


Durvillaea montagnei Kützing

Botryococcus braunii Kützing Yardley Chase, Northamptonshire, UK. BF.
© C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com)

Publication details
Botryococcus braunii Kützing 1849: 892

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1849). Species algarum. pp. [i]-vi, [1]-922. Lipsiae [Leipzig]: F.A. Brockhaus.
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Publication date: 23-24 July 1849

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Botryococcus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Botryococcus giganteus Reinsch 1877
Thallodesmium wallichianum W.B.Turner 1893

Taxonomic notes
Results of phylogenetic analysis by Sayama et al. (1995: 419) indicated that B. braunii Kützing Berkeley strain is a member of the Chlorophyta and possibly related to Characium vacuolatum and Dunaliella parva (Chlorophyceae). Senousy et al. (2004) investigated the phylogenetic placement of four isolates of B. braunii (representing A, B and L chemical races). They found that these four isolates form a monophyletic group whose closest relatives are in the Trebouxiophyceae (unrelated to the sequence reported by Sawayama et al. 1995). The closest known relative of the four isolates of B. braunii is the genus Choricystis. Senousy et al. consider polyphyly of B. braunii to be unlikely and suggest that the presence of a contaminant could explain the results. Weiss et al. (2010) isolated the Berkeley strain nuclear SSU (18S) rRNA and ß-actin cDNA and used these sequences for phylogenetic analysis to confirm that the Berkeley strain belongs to the Tebouxiophyceae. - (21 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Habitat notes
Widely distributed in many types of aquatic habitat including ditches, bog pools, open water tanks, ponds and lakes (John & Tsarenko 2002). - (7 Jul 2010) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
B. braunii has liquid-hydrocarbon biosynthetic capabilities and is therefore a promising source of renewable hydrocarbon fuels (Weiss et al. 2010). - (20 Sep 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Type information
Type locality: In lacu Neoburgense, Helvetiae [Lake Neuenburg, also known as Lake Neuchatel, Switzerland] (Kützing 1849: 892). Type: A. Braun 115; L? Notes: Isotype: UC 790500

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Botryococcus braunii Kützing)
Arctic: Ellesmere Island (Croasdale 1973).

Europe: Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Britain (John & Tsarenko 2002, Whitton et al. 2003, John, Whitton & Brook 2011), Czech Republic (Hasler, Handák & Handákova 2007), Georgia (Barinova et al. 2011, Barinova & Kukhaleishvili 2014), Germany (Mauch & Schmedtje 2003, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2014, Täuscher 2016), Ireland (Adams 1908), Netherlands (Veen et al. 2015), Poland (Kokocinski et al. 2010), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012, Caraus 2017), Russia (Europe) (Kostryukova et al. 2018), Scandinavia (Karlason et al. 2018), Slovakia (Hindák & Hindáková 2016), Spain (Alvárez Cobelas & Gallardo 1986, Cambra Sánchez, Álvarez Cobelas & Aboal Sanjurjo 1998, Fanés Treviño et al., 2009, Fanés Treviño, Comas González & Sánchez Castillo 2009, Fanés Treviño et al., 2009), Sweden (Skuja 1948), Turkey (Europe) (Aysel 2005), Ukraine (Tsarenko 2011, Berezovskaya 2019, Tsarenko et al. 2019).

North America: Arkansas (AR) (Smith 2010), Great Lakes (Prescott 1962), Mexico (Figueroa-Torres et al. 2015), Northwest Territories (Sheath & Steinman 1982), Ontario (Xenopoulos & Frost, 2003), Québec (Poulin, Hamilton & Proulx 1995).

Caribbean Islands: Cuba (Comas-González et al. 2017), Martinique (Metzger, Allard, Casadevall, Berkaloff & Couté 1990, Plain, Largeau, Derenne & Couté 1993).

South America: Argentina (Tell 1985), Bolivia (Metzger, Allard, Casadevall, Berkaloff & Couté 1990), Brazil (Bicudo & Bicudo, 1970, Bicudo & Martau 1974, Bicudo et al. 1999, Fonseca & Bicudo 2008, Menezes 2010, Ramos et al. 2015).

Africa: Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Metzger, Allard, Casadevall, Berkaloff & Couté 1990), Namibia (Erasmus, Vuuren & Levanets 2016), Sudan (Reinhold 1937), Zimbabwe (Rich 1935).

South-west Asia: Bangladesh (Ahmed et al. 2008), India (Gupta 2012), Iraq (Maulood et al. 2013), Israel (Barinova & Tavassi 2009, Barinova, Tavassi & Glassman 2009), Turkey (Asia) (Soylu & Gonulol 2006).

Asia: China (Bi & Hu 2004, Hu & Wei 2006), Japan (Hirose, Yamagishi & Akiyama 1977), Korea (Kim & Kim 2012), Russia (Far East) (Medvedeva & Nikulina 2014), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012), Tajikistan (Barinova, Boboev & Hisoriev 2015, Barinova & Niyatbekov 2018).

South-east Asia: Myanmar (Burma) (Skuja 1949), Singapore (Pham et al. 2011), Thailand (Metzger, Allard, Casadevall, Berkaloff & Couté 1990).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Ling & Tyler 2000 ), New South Wales (Day et al. 1995), New Zealand (Chapman, Thompson & Segar 1957, Broady et al. 2012), Northern Territory (Day et al. 1995), Queensland (Day et al. 1995, Phillips 2002, Bostock & Holland 2010), Tasmania (Day et al. 1995), Victoria (Day et al. 1995).

Key references
Fanés Treviño, I., Sánchez-Castillo, P. & Comas González, A. (2009). Contribution to the taxonomic study of the family Botryococcaceae (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) in southern Spain. Cryptogamie, Algologie 30(1): 17-30, 5 figs.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Kim, J.K. & Kim, H.S. (2012). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 6, Number 2 Chlorophyta: Chlorophyceae: Chlorococcales I: Micractiniaceae, Botryococcaceae, Characiaceae, Hydrodictyaceae. pp. [1-4], 1-117, figs 1-92. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Komárek, J. & Fott, B. (1983). Chlorophyceae (Grünalgen) Ordnung: Chlorococcales. Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers. In: Das Phytoplankton des Süsswassers (Die Binnengewässer) XVI. (Huber-Pestalozzi, G. Eds), pp. [1]-x, [1]-1044. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlangbuchhandlung (Nägele u. Obermiller).

Korshikov, A.A. (1953). Viznachnik prisnovodnihk vodorostey Ukrainsykoi RSR [Vyp] V. Pidklas Protokokovi (Protococcineae). Bakuol'ni (Vacuolales) ta Protokokovi (Protococcales) [The Freshwater Algae of the Ukrainian SSR. V. Sub-Class Protococcineae. Vacuolales and Protococcales]. pp. 1-439. Kyjv [Kiev]: Akad. NAUK URSR.

Möbius, K. (1892). Australische Süsswasseralgen. Flora (Jena) 75: 421-454, pls VII, VIII.

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Ramos, G.J.P., Bicudo, C.E. de M. & Moura, C.W. do N. (2015). Trebouxiophyceae (Chlorophyta) from Marimbus Wetlands, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Iheringia Série Botanica 70(1): 57-72.

Skuja, H. (1948). Taxonomie des Phytoplanktons einiger Seen in Uppland, Schweden. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 9(3): 1-399, 39 pls.

Tsarenko, P.M. (2011). Trebouxiophyceae. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 61-108. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..

Tsarenko, P.M.& John, D.M. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Trebouxiales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 499-500. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 10 December 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 23788 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Al-Hothaly, K.A., Taha, M., May, B.H., Stylianou, S., Ball, A.S. & Adetutu, E.M. (2016). The effect of nutrients and environmental conditions on biomass and oil productio in Botryococcus braunii Race B strains. European Journal of Phycology 51(1): 1-10.
Berkaloff, C., Rousseau, B., Couté, A., Casadevall, E., Metzger, P. & Chirac, C. (1984). Variability of cell wall structure and hydrocarbon type in different strains of Botryococcus braunii. Journal of Phycology 20: 377-389.
Brown, A.C. (1969). Some aspects of hydrocarbon formation in the green alga Botryococcus braunii Kütz. British Phycological Journal 4: 211.
Chang, I.Z., Huang, W.Y. & Wu, J.T. (2004). Allelochemicals of Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 474-480.
Chirac, C., Casadevall, E., Largeau, C. & Metzger, P. (1985). Bacterial influence upon growth and hydrocarbon production of the green alga Botryococcus braunii. Journal of Phycology 21: 380-387, 2 figs, 5 tables.
Cookson, I.C. (1953). Records of the occurrence of Botryococcus braunii, Pediastrum and the Hystrichosphaerideae in Cainozoic Deposits of Australia. Mem. Nat. Mus. Melbourne 18: 107-123, 2 pl., 43 fig.
Ioki, M., Baba, M., Nakajima, N., Shiraiwa, Y. Watanabe, M.M. (2013). Codon usage of Botryococcus braunii (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta): implications for genetic engineering applications. Phycologia 52(4): 352-356.
Metzger, P. & Casadevall, E. (1991). Botryococcoid ethers, ether lipids from Botryococcus braunii. Phytochemistry 30(5): 1439-1444.
Metzger, P., Allard, B., Casadevall, E., Berkaloff, C. & Couté, A. (1990). Structure and chemistry of a new chemical race of Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyceae) that produces lycopadiene, a tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon. Journal of Phycology 26(2): 258-266, 7 figs, 5 tables.
Nonomura, A.M. (1988). Botryococcus braunii var. showa (Chlorophyceae) from Berkeley, California, United States of America. Japanese Journal of Phycology 36: 285-291.
Plain, N., Largeau, C., Derenne, S. & Couté, A. (1993). Variabilité morphologique de Botryococcus braunii (Chlorococcales, Chlorophyta): corrélations avc les conditions de croissance et la teneur en lipides. Phycologia 32(4): 259-265, 16 figs, 1 table. [in French; English abstract]
Sawayama, S., Inoue, S. & Yokoyama, S.-Y. (1995). Note: Phylogenetic position of Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyceae) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequence data. Journal of Phycology 31: 419-420, 1 fig.
Senousy, H.H., Beakes, G.W. & Hack, E. (2004). Phylogenetic placement of Botryococcus braunii (Trebouxiophyceae) and Botryococcus sudeticus isolate UTEX 2629 (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 40: 412-423.
Tenaud, M., Ohmori, M. & Miyachi, S. (1989). Inorganic carbon and acetate assimilation in Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 25: 662-667, 4 figs, 4 tables.
Vioque, J., Sirakova, T. & Kolattukudy, P.E. (1999). The malate dehydrogenase gene from Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae): cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli. Journal of Phycology 35: 121-127, 5 figs, 1 table.
Vuuren, S. van & Levanets, A. (2016). First record of Botryococcus braunii Kützing from Namibia. Bothalia 49(1;a2382): 1-5, 2 figs.
Weiss, T.L., Johnson, J.S., Fujisawa, K., Sumimoto, K., Okada, S., Chappell, J. & Devarenne, T.P. (2010). Phylogenetic placement, genome size, and GC content of the liquid-hydrocarbon-producing green microalga Botryococcus braunii strain Berkely (Showa) (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 46(3): 534-540.
Wolf, F.R. & Cox, E.R. (1981). Ultrastructure of active and resting colonies of Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 17: 395-405, 31 figs.
Wolf, F.R. (1983). Botryococcus braunii: an unusual hydrocarbon-producing alga. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 8: 249-260.
Wolf, F.R., Nonomura, A.M. & Bassham, J.A. (1985). Growth and branched hydrocarbon production in a strain of Botryococcus braunii (Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 21: 388-396, 5 figs, 4 tables.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 06 December 2019.

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