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Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory 1826

Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Chlorophyceae
Order Chlamydomonadales
Family Volvocaceae
Genus Pandorina


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Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Daughter coenobia. Pitsford Water SSSI, Northamptonshire, UK.. 27 Mar 2010. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Non-motile resting stage, Pitsford Water SSSI, Northamptonshire, UK. BF.. 27 Mar 2010. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Resting stage. Pitsford Water SSSI, Northamptonshire, UK. BF.. 27 Mar 2010. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Pitsford Water SSSI, Northamptonshire, UK. BF Image.. 27 Mar 2010. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Pitsford Water SSSI, Northamptonshire, UK. BF image.. 27 Mar 2010. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; pond, Lugol's, 1000x, DIC. 20 Mar 2010. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Seattle, Washington, USA; golf course, 1000x, DIC. 02 Aug 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Kingston, Washington, USA; golf course, 400x, DIC. 03 May 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory
Seattle, Washington, USA; golf course, 1000x, DIC. 02 Aug 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).


Microcoelia polymorpha var. kowiensis Holmes

Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory Bainbridge Island, Washington, USA; pond, Lugol's, 1000x, DIC
© Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net)

Publication details
Pandorina morum (O.F.Müller) Bory 1826: 22 (as 'mora' )

Published in: Bory de Saint-Vincent, [J.B.G.M.] (1826). Essai d'une classification des animaux microscopiques. pp. [i]-x, [1]-104. Paris: de l'imprimerie de de Mme Veuve Agasse.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Pandorina.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Volvox morum O.F.Müller

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Volvox morum O.F.Müller 1786

Nomenclatural notes
There is some uncertainty as to the nature of the specific epithet. According to Cassell's Latin Dictionary "morum" is a neuter noun, meaning a mulberry or blackberry fruit, whilst "morus", a feminine noun, is a blackberry tree. The adjective "morus, mora, morum" means silly or foolish. Accordingly, it seems clear that O.F. Müller found this mulberry- or, more likely, blackberry-like "Volvox" and called it Volvox morum using "morum" as a noun in apposition [otherwise he would have used morus if it were an adjective as Volvox is masculine], but Bory, when he transferred the entity to Pandorina, erroneously altered this to Pandorina mora, and the epithet should therefore be corrected to Pandorina morum. O.F.Müller would not be likely to name his "Volvox" after a tree (and would have used "morus"), and certainly would not have used the adjectival "morus" thinking his lovely microscopic "animal" was silly or foolish. - (31 Mar 2011) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Coleman, A.W. (2004). FishPond revisited: how can microalgae be perennials?. Phycologia 43: 422-426, 2 figs.

Day, S.A., Wickham, R.P., Entwisle, T.J. & Tyler, P.A. (1995). Bibliographic check-list of non-marine algae in Australia. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 4: [i]-vii, 1-276.

Henfrey, A. (1956). Notes on some fresh-water confervoid algae, new to Britian. Transactions of the Microscopical Society of London, New Series 4: 49-54, 1 pl. [pl. IV] with 36 figs.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Hu, H. & Wei, Y. (2006). The freshwater algae of China. Systematics, taxonomy and ecology. pp. [4 pls of 16 figs], [i-iv], i-xv, 1-1023. China: www.sciencep.com.

Hu, Y., Xing, W., Song, H., Hu, Z. & Liu, G. (2019/2020). Comparison of colonial volvocine algae based on phylotranscriptomic analysis of gene family evolution and natural selection. European Journal of Phycology 55(1): 100-112.

Korshikov, A.A. (1938). Volvocineae. In: Vyznachnyk prisnovodnykh vodorostej URSR [Vyp] Vol. IV. (Rolla, J.V. Eds), pp. 1-184. Kyjv [Kiev]: Akademiyi Nauk URSR. [in Ukrainian]

Lamouroux, [J.V.F.], Bory de Saint-Vincent, [J.B.] & Eud[es]-Deslongchamps, [J.A.] (1827). Encyclopédie méthodique ou par ordre de matières. Histoire naturelle des zoophytes, ou animaux rayonnés, faisant suite à l'histoire naturelle des vers de Bruguière. Tome Second. pp. 377–819. Paris: Chez Mme veuve Agasse, Imprimeur-Libraire, rue dos Poitevins, no. 6.

Massjuk, N.P. & Lilitska, G.G. (2011). Volvocales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 218-225. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Pentecost, A. (2011). Phylum Chlorophyta. Order Volvocales. In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 381-409. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skuja, H. (1956). Taxonomische und biologische Studien über das Phytoplankton schwedischer Binnengewässer. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Series IV 16(3): 1-404, + 63 pls.

Suda, S., Nozaki, H. & Watanabe, M. (2005). Morphology and sexual reproduction of Carteria palmata sp. nov. belonging to the Carteria group I sensu Lembi (Chlorophyceaem Volvocales). Phycologia 44: 596-607.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 02 November 2020 by G.M. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 10094 times since it was created.

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Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Coleman, A.W. & Maguire, M.J. (1983). Note: A simplified, rapid method for identifying mating type in algae: results with the Pandorina morum (Chlorophyceae) species complex. Journal of Phycology 19: 536-539, 3 tables.
Coleman, A.W. (1979). Feulgen microspectrophotometric studies of Pandorina morum and other Volvocales (Chlorophyceae). Journal of Phycology 15: 216-220, 1 fig, 1 table.
Moss, B. (1977). Factors controlling the seasonal incidence of Pandorina morum (Mull.) Bory (Chlorophyta, Volvocales) in a small pond. Hydrobiologia 47: 298-305.
Nozaki, H. & Kasaki, H. (1979). The sexual process of Japanese Pandorina morum Bory (Chlorophyta). Journal of Japanese Botany 54: 363-370.
Nozaki, H. (1980). The asexual reproduction of Japanese Pandorina morum Bory (Chlorophyta, Volvocales). Japanese Journal of Phycology 28: 157-158.
Palmer, E.G. & Starr, R.C. (1971). Nutrition of Pandorina morum. Journal of Phycology 7: 85-89, 3 figs, 2 tables.
Patterson, G.M.L. & Harris, D.O. (1983). The effect of Pandorina morum (Chlorophyta) toxin on the growth of selected algae, bacteria and higher plants. British Phycological Journal 18: 259-266, 1 fig, 5 tables.
Schagerl, M., Angeler, D.G. & Coleman, A.W. (1999). Infraspecific phylogeny of Pandorina morum (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) inferred from molecular, biochemical and traditional data. European Journal of Phycology 34: 87-93, 3 figs, 1 table.
Watt, F., Brook, A.J. & Crime, G.W. (1990). Nuclear microscopy of the alga Pandorina morum (Müll.) Bory. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B49: 465-471.

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G.M. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2021. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 26 July 2021.

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