153,875 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,014 images, 59,586 bibliographic items, 413,474 distributional records.

Botryocladia (J.Agardh) Kylin, 1931, nom. cons.

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Rhodymeniophycidae
Order Rhodymeniales
Family Rhodymeniaceae

Holotype species: Botryocladia uvaria (J.A.Murray) Harvey

Currently accepted name for the type species: Botryocladia botryoides (Wulfen) Feldmann

Original publication and holotype designation: Kylin, H. (1931). Die Florideenordung Rhodymeniales. Acta Universitatis Lundensis 27(11): 1-48, 8 figs, 20 plates.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Gender: This genus name is currently treated as feminine.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Schneider, C.W. & Wynne, M.J. (2007). A synoptic review of the classification of red algal genera a half a century after Kylin's "Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen". Botanica Marina 50: 197-249.

Description: Thallus with a discoid or rhizomatous holdfast and erect branched or unbranched fronds bearing inflated, spherical, ovoid, pyriform or saccate, branched or unbranched vesicles formed sympodially and borne radially or, occasionally, in distichous rows. Construction multiaxial, cortex of 2-3 (-6) layers of small cells, forming a continuous layer over the medullary cells, medulla consisting of cavities filled with a weak mucilage, lined with oblong, rounded cells bearing secretory cells singly or in groups in a sessile position on the inner faces of the medullary cells. Filamentous medulla absent. Gametangial plants dioecious; spermatangial sori superficial, scattered, spermatangia cut off terminally from elongated initials modified from cortical cells. Cystocarps ostiolate, scattered, never coronate, protruding outwards and inwards into the medullary cavity, most cells forming carposporangia in 2-3 lobes of different ages, streched cells sometimes apparent in the area of the pericarp. Tetrasporangia formed in an intercalary position from cortical filaments, scattered, not in nemathecia. Spores regularly or irregularly cruciately arranged. Asexual reproduction is likely to be common in all the rhizomatous species. I.K. Lee and West (in West and Hommersand (1982): 172) report completing the 'Polysiphonia-type' life history of B. pseudodichotoma but give no details. Several other species have been grown in culture (Norris 1989; Guiry and Millar unpubl. obs.), but none has reproduced. Botryocladia is a large and distinctive genus characterised mainly on the basis that vesicles are borne on solid stalks of varying dimensions, as opposed to being completely vesicular or saccate, as in species of Chrysymenia (q.v.). According to Feldmann and Bodard (1965), Botryocladia species can be segregated into two major groups: those with short stalks and relatively few vesicles, and those with long stalks and many vesicles. Within these two groups, species discrimination is mainly on the basis of the shape, position and size of the vesicles, the number and position of the secretory cells. Norris (1989) considered that the shape of the medullary cells in the stalks was of taxonomic value, but this character remains to be determined for most species. The development of reproductive organs is poorly known for most species of the genus, and reproductive characters are rarely used in species separation.

Information contributed by: M.D. Guiry. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 24 Jan 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Young (1978) describes the ultrastructural evidence for a secretory function for the 'gland cells' of B. pseudodichotoma. Tripodi and others (1986) give an account of the fine structure of the genophore and the membranous bodies of the chloroplasts of B. botryoides. Taylor & Abbott (1973) described spine-like projections on the surface of B. spinulifera W.R. Taylor et Abbott from the West Indies which are not cellular but are extensions of the cell wall. Such spinous growths are unknown in any other species referred to the Rhodymeniaceae. Augier (1971 and included references) has described the occurrence of several plant hormones in B. uvaria (as B. botryoides) including indolyl-3-acetic acid and tryptophan. Ballantine (1989) gives details of reproduction in two species of the genus from the Caribbean. Species of Botryocladia are found in lower-shore tidal pools, occasionally on floating structures such as marinas (e.g., Monterey, California), and, most commonly, in the subtidal to depths of about 55 m (Abbott and Hollenberg 1976). In general, the genus has a tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate distribution. The genus Irvinea (q.v.) has recently been segregated from Botryocladia (Guiry in Saunders and others 1999).

Numbers of names and species: There are 56 species names in the database at present, as well as 2 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 50 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Augier, H. (1965). Les substances de croissance chez la Rhodophycée Botryocladia botryoides (Wulf.) J. Feldm.. Compte Rendu Hebdomadaire des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences. Paris. 260: 2304-2306.

Ballantine, D.L. (1989). Reproduction in Caribbean plants of Botryocladia pyriformis and B. wynnei (Rhodymeniales, Rhodophyta). Phycologia 28: 237-242.

Taylor, W.R. & Abbott, I.A. (1973). A new species of Botryocladia from the West Indies. British Phycological Journal 8: 409-412.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 01 January 2001 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 January 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=33245

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 December 2018.

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