153,822 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,012 images, 59,572 bibliographic items, 413,461 distributional records.

Clathromorphum Foslie, 1898

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Mesophyllaceae

Lectotype species: Clathromorphum compactum (Kjellman) Foslie

Original publication:Foslie, M. (1898). Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1-7.
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Type designated in Lemoine, Mme P. [=M.] (1911). Structure anatomique des Mélobésiées. Application à la classification. Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco 2(2): 1-213, 14 figs, 3 folded tables, pls I-V.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Adey, W.H., Hernández-Kantún, J.J., Johnson, G. & Gabrielson, P.W. (2015). DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 51(1): 189-203.

Nomenclatural notes
Hapalidaceae (Hind et al., 2016). The family name Mesophyllaceae, introduced by Athanasaidis (2016: 212) is an illegitimate later homonym of Mesophyllaceae Heeg (Equisetopsida). - (30 Nov 2017) - M.D. Guiry

Taxonomic notes
Hapalidiaceae (Hind et al., 2016). - (31 Jan 2017) - Wendy Guiry

Description: Nongeniculate, encrusting, epilithic, coralline; multifilament hypothallium sub-parallel to substratum, mostly arching upward to form perithallium, some filaments arching downward, dead-ending on substratum; cells of adjacent filaments linked by fusions, secondary pit-connections unknown; epithallium thick, 3-14 cell layers (largely dependent on level of invertebrate grazing), epithallial cells with abundant plastids and outermost walls of terminal epithallial cells rounded or flattened but not flared at the corners; meristem intercalary and below epithallium; meristematic cells usually as long as or longer than their immediate inward derivatives; growth (cell division and elongation) and cell wall calcification occurring only in meristematic cells in a narrow (1-2 um wide), often un- or weakly calcified horizontal plane (meristem split) before formation of transverse cell walls; double mode of calcification with primary, small, prismatic, radial calcite crystals within cell walls with secondary, large, diagonal, deltoid inter filament crystals between cell filaments in perithallium; in epithallium interfilament crystals few, vertical and plate-like; all conceptacle fertile discs developed directly from the meristem, sunken at maturity; intersporangial filaments initially calcified, dissolved when sporangia mature; bi/tetrasporangia bearing columnar cap walls (i.e., conceptacles multiporate), roof exposed by sloughing-off overlying epithallium; conceptacle cavity calcite, including surrounding and underlying perithallium dissolved by maturing sporangia; gametangia (where known) and carposporangia (where known) developing in uniporate conceptacles; roof of spermatangial conceptacles not reformed by lateral growing in of tissue, spermatangia produced from columnar cells clothing entire inner walls of conceptacles.

Information contributed by: Wm. J. Woelkerling & Paul W. Gabrielson. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 14 Dec 2017 by M.D. Guiry.

Characters considered diagnostic of Clathromorphum: Clathromorphum is the only known genus of nongeniculate corallines with: 1) growth (cell division and elongation) and cell wall calcification occurring only in meristematic cells in a narrow (1-2 um wide), often un- or weakly calcified horizontal plane (meristem split) before formation of transverse cell walls and 2) secondary, interfilament calcification. It is vegetative, not reproductive features that are diagnostic for Clathromorphum, and these need to examined in other Hapalidaceae genera.

Characters considered diagnostic of higher taxonomic ranks known/presumed to occur in all species of Clathromorphum: 1) calcification in the form of calcite; 2) pit plugs with two cap layers at cytoplasmic faces, the outer cap dome shaped; membrane absent; 3) cell walls impregnated with calcite; 4) gametangia and carposporangia produced within uniporate conceptacles; 5) tetrasporangia/bisporangia produced within conceptacles and possessing zonately arranged spores; 6) tetrasporangial/bisporangial conceptacles possessing multiporate plates or roofs; 7) tetrasporangia/bisporangia producing apical plugs; 8) tetrasporangial/bisporangial conceptacles with multiporate roofs composed of cells; lacking an acellular multiporate plate recessed below a single outer opening; and 9) cells of contiguous vegetative filaments linked exclusively by cell fusions. Characters 1-2 are considered diagnostic of the Corallinophycidae, 3-5 of the Corallinales, 6-7 of the Hapalidiaceae, and 8-9 of the Melobesioideae.

Generic synonyms:

DNA sequencing evidence is needed to confirm that Antarcticophyllum (Lemoine) Mendoza (1976: 254) is a heterotypic synonym of Clathromorphum. See AlgaeBase entry for this name for further information.

Comments:

Information on the taxonomic history, nomenclature, and other matters associated with the name Clathromorphum is contained in Woelkerling (1988: 158-167). Growth form terminology (encrusting, lumpy, discoid, etc.) follows Woelkerling et al. (1993).

Adey et al. (2015) sequenced the lectotype and isolectotype specimens of C. compactum (Kjellman) Foslie, the lectotype species of Clathromorphum. Additional data on the lectotype specimen is provided in Woelkerling (1988: 161-163, figs 167-170) (also see Woelkerling et al. 2005: 488).

Adey et al. (2015) question the inclusion of all southern hemisphere species of Clathromorphum in the genus; they also transferred C. loculosum to Neopolyporolithon and C. parcum to a new genus Callilithophytum. Accounts of northern hemisphere species are provided by Adey (1965, north-western Atlantic), Lebednik (1977, north-western North America), Kloczcova (1996, eastern Russia), Perestkenko (1994, eastern Russia) and Yoshida & Baba (1998, Japan), while accounts of southern hemisphere species are provided by Chamberlain et al. (1995, South Africa), Mendoza & Cabioch (1985, Kerguelen and southern South America) and Mendoza et al. (1996, Tierra del Fuego). Male and female conceptacles and carposporophytes are unknown in the type species (C. compactum) and are poorly known (or unknown) in most other species.

Numbers of names and species: There are 15 species names in the database at present, as well as 3 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 7 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Adey, W.H. (1965). The genus Clathromorphum (Corallinaceae) in the Gulf of Maine. Hydrobiologia 26: 539-573.

Adey, W.H. & Johansen, H.W. (1972). Morphology and taxonomy of Corallinaceae with special reference to Clathromorphum, Mesophyllum, and Neopolyporolithon gen. nov. (Rhodophyceae, Cryptonemiales). Phycologia 11: 159-180, 69 figs, 1 table.

Chamberlain, Y.M., Norris, R.E., Keats, D.W. & Maneveldt, G. (1995). Clathromorphum tubiforme sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae) in South Africa with comments on generic characters. Botanica Marina 38: 443-453, 29 figs, 1 table.

Foslie, M. (1898). Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1-7.

Harvey, A.S., Woelkerling, W. J. & Millar, A.J.K. (2003). An account of the Hapalidiaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in south-eastern Australia. Australian Systematic Botany 16: 647-698.

Kjellman, F.R. (1883). Norra Ishafvets algflora [Northern Arctic Ocean algalflora]. Vega-expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser 3: 1-431, pls 1-31.

Kloczcova, N.G. (1996). Flora vodoroslei makrofitov Tatarskogo Proliva i osobennosti ee formirovanija [Macrophyte algal flora of Tatars Gulf (Sea of Japan) and peculiarities of its formation]. pp. 1-289. Vladivostock: Dalnauka. [in Russian]

Lebednik, P.A. (1977 '1976'). The Corallinaceae of northwestern North America. I. Clathromorphum Foslie emend. Adey. Syesis 9: 59-112.

Le Gall, L. & Saunders, G.W. (2007). A nuclear phylogeny of the Florideophyceae (Rhodophyta) inferred from combined EF2, small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA: establishing the new red algal subclass Corallinophycidae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43: 1118-1130.

Lemoine, Mme P. [=M.] (1911). Structure anatomique des Mélobésiées. Application à la classification. Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco 2(2): 1-213, 14 figs, 3 folded tables, pls I-V.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Mendoza, M.L. (1976). Antarcticophyllum, a new genus of Corallinaceae. Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica 17: 252-261.

Mendoza, M.L. & Cabioch, J. (1985). Critique et comparaison morphogénétique des genres Clathromorphum et Antarcticophyllum (Rhodophyta, Corallinaceae). Conséquences biogéographiques et systématiques. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 26: 251-266.

Mendoza, M.L., Molina, S. & Ventrua, P. (1996). Rhodophyta: Orden Corallinales. Flora Criptogámica de Tierra del Fuego 8(3): 1-72.

Perestenko, L.P. (1996 '1994'). Krasnye vodorosli dal'nevostochnykh more Rossii [Red algae of the far-eastern seas of Russia]. pp. 1-330[331], 60 pls. St. Petersburg: Rossiiskaia Akademiia Nauk, Botanichesk Institut im. V.L. Komarova [Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences] & OLGA, a private publishing company.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1988). The Coralline Red Algae: an analysis of the genera and subfamilies of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. pp. i-xi, 1-268, 259 figs, tables numbered by chapter. London & Oxford: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1993). Type collections of Corallinales (Rhodophyta) in the Foslie Herbarium (TRH). Gunneria 67: 1-289, 8 tables.

Woelkerling, W.J., Gustavsen, G., Myklebost, H.E., Prestø, T., Såstad, S.M. (2005). The coralline red algal herbarium of Mikael Foslie: revised catalogue with analyses. Gunneria 77: 1-625.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Harvey, A. (1992). Mesophyllum incisum (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) in Southern Australia - implications for generic and specific delimitation in the Melobesioideae. British Phycological Journal 27: 381-399.

Woelkerling, W.J., Irvine, L.M. & Harvey, A.S. (1993). Growth-forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Australian Systematic Botany 6: 277-293.

Adey, W.H., Hernández-Kantún, J.J., Johnson, G. & Gabrielson, P.W. (2015). DNA sequencing, anatomy, and calcification patterns support a monophyletic, subarctic, carbonate reef-forming Clathromorphum (Hapalidiaceae, Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Phycology 51(1): 189-203.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 30 November 2017 by M.D. Guiry

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 December 2018.

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