Haematococcus Flotow, 1844, nom. et typ. cons.
Lectotype species: Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow
Original publication and holotype designation: Flotow, J. von (1844). Beobachtungen über Haematococcus pluvialis. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlichen Leopoldinisch-Carolinischen Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher 12(Abt. 2): 413-606, 3 pls.
Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.
Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Massjuk, N.P., Lilitska, G.G. & Kapustin, D.O. (2011). Chlamydomonadales. In: Algae of Ukraine: diversity, nomenclature, taxonomy, ecology and geography. Volume 3: Chlorophyta. (Tsarenko, P.M., Wasser, S.P. & Nevo, E. Eds), pp. 157-218. Ruggell: A.R.A. Gantner Verlag K.-G..
According to Buchheim et al. (2013), H. pluvialis is probably the only member of the genus Haematococcus that is valid taoxnomically. - (30 Jan 2014) - Wendy Guiry
Description: Unicellular, biflagellate and uninucleate algae with cells enclosed by an ovoid, ellipsoid, ellipsoid-cylindrical or nearly globose wall. The major portion of the protoplast at some distance internal to the cell wall to which it is connected by delicate cytoplasmic strands which may be simple or branched. The major portion of the protoplast is ovoid or ellipsoid and the anterior end is a rostrate extension from which the two flagella arise and penetrate the cell wall. Chloroplasts mainly cup-shaped, on occasion tubular and perforate, with 1-2 (to several) pyrenoids and a large stigma. Nucleus usually central in lumen of chloroplast. Typically many contractile vacuoles present. Chloroplast and other cytoplasmic structures often (particularly in older cells) difficult to distinguish because of large accumulations of haematochrome. Haematochrome or astaxanthin also abundant in aplanospores. Asexual reproduction by division of vegetative cells into 4-8 zoospores. Vegetative cells frequently develop into thick-walled aplanospores producing 4, 8 or16 zoospores. Sexual reproduction isogamous, the quadriflagellate planozygote ultimately loosing its flagella and secreting a thickened wall. Meiosis seemingly zygotic.
Information contributed by: G.E. Dillard & M.D. Guiry. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 10 Aug 2016 by M.D. Guiry.
Comments: Haematococcus is more or less cosmopolitan, being reported from all continents except Antarctica. Isolates of Haematococcus can utilize organic nitrogen and acetate and grow heterotrophically in the dark.
Numbers of names and species: There are 23 species names in the database at present, as well as 6 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 6 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..
Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):
Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.
Friedl, T. & O'Kelly, C.J. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships of green algae assigned to the genus Planophila (Chlorophyta): evidence from 18S rDNA sequence data and ultrastructure. European Journal of Phycology 37: 373-384.
Pocock, M.A. (1960). Haematococcus in southern Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 36: 5-55.
Doweld, A.B. (2013). (2139-2140) Proposals to conserve the names Haematococcus against Protococcus and Polytomataceae against Protococcaceae (Algae: Chlorophyta). Taxon 62(3): 626-627.
Buchheim, M.A., Sutherland, D.M., Buchheim, J.A. & Wolf, M. (2013). The blood alga: phylogeny of Haemotococcus (Chlorophyceae) inferred from ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. European Journal of Phycology 48(3): 318-329.
Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.
Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.
Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry
Verified by: 10 August 2016 by M.D. Guiry
Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43375
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 April 2019.