153,600 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,403 bibliographic items, 411,227 distributional records.

Synechococcus C.Nägeli, 1849

Classification:
Empire Prokaryota
Kingdom Eubacteria
Subkingdom Negibacteria
Phylum Cyanobacteria
Class Cyanophyceae
Subclass Synechococcophycidae
Order Synechococcales
Family Synechococcaceae

Holotype species: Synechococcus elongatus (Nägeli) Nägeli

Original publication and holotype designation: Nägeli, C. (1849). Gattungen einzelliger Algen, physiologisch und systematisch bearbeitet. Neue Denkschriften der Allg. Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die Gesammten Naturwissenschaften 10(7): i-viii, 1-139, pls I-VIII.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Komárek, J., Kastovsky, J., Mares, J. & Johansen, J.R. (2014). Taxonomic classification of cyanoprokaryotes (cyanobacterial genera) 2014, using a polyphasic approach. Preslia 86: 295-335.

Description: Unicellular; cells solitary or agglomerated in groups, but without common mucilage, oval, widely oval or rod-like, sometimes curved or sigmoid, rounded at the ends, with homogeneous content or with several dispersed or solitary polar granules, usually pale blue-green, rarely olive-green, bright blue-green or pinkish, nonmotile. Without chromatic adaptation. Thylakoids localized along cells walls. Filament-like involution cells. Photoautotroph. Cell division (pinching or cleavage) always by binary fission, perpendicular to the longer axis of the cell, i.e., in the same plane in successive generations; daughter cells grow more or less in the original size before the next division. After division, cells separate or remain arranged in short rows (pseudofilaments) of several cells, freely connected with their ends. Under suboptimal conditions arise the elongated filamentous involution cells, which are able to divide asymmetrically. Reproduction by solitary cells. Several species grow within mats and colonies of other algae, or form fine colonies on wet substrates (mud, wood, stones, etc.). A group of species is known from the metaphyton and periphyton of thermal and mineral springs, few are described from aerophytic sites. Interesting picoplanktonic or planktonic species were found in oceans as well as in freshwater reservoirs (lakes) (S. rhodobactron and others). The genus is surely heterogeneous and its taxonomy must be solved by help of ultrastructural procedures and by methods of molecular taxonomy. The "Marine cluster A" (with motile cells, reddish cell content, with chromatic adaptation, photoautotroph; comp. Waterbury 1989) represents evidently a special, botanically not yet revised genus. Synechococcus is important experimental model organism, the strains of which grow well in different types of cultures. To this genus belong also different strains designated commonly as "Anacystis nidulans" and "Agmenellum quadruplicatum" (= Synechococcus nidulans). The solitary Synechococcus cells without mucilage grow well in homogeneous liquid solutions. Among Synechococcus species, occur several interesting types from ecologically extreme conditions (e.g. thermophilic Synechococcus lividus, S. bigranulatus, etc.).

Information contributed by: J. Komárek. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 3 Mar 2015 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 74 species names in the database at present, as well as 15 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 38 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Komárek, J. (2003). Coccoid and colonial cyanobacteria. In: Freshwater Algae of North America. Ecology and Classification. (Wehr, J.D. & Sheath, R.G. Eds), pp. 59-116. Amsterdam Boston London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Fransisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo: Academic Press.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 03 March 2015 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43582

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 17 November 2018.

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