153,585 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,980 images, 59,387 bibliographic items, 411,011 distributional records.

Agardhina Nardo, 1834

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Corallinophycidae
Order Hapalidiales
Family Hapalidiaceae
Subfamily Melobesioideae

Type species: a type species (generitype) appears not to have been designated.

Original publication:Nardo, G.D. (1834). De corallinis ac nulliporis auct. Isis von Oken 1834(1): 673-675.
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Taxonomic status: currently regarded as a synonym of Phymatolithon.

Nomenclatural notes
The ICBN rules cited below are those adopted by the Seventeenth International Botanical Congress, Vienna, Austria, July 2005 (McNeill et al. 2006).

Nardo (1834) established Agardhina as a plant genus for species that were included in Nullipora Lamarck (1801), originally described as a genus of animals. At that time, as noted by Nardo (1834: 673), there was still debate as to whether organisms now known as coralline red algae (particularly those lacking genicula) were plants, animals or even mineral deposits (also see Philippi 1837; Woelkerling 1988: viii). Nardo (1834) considered the nullipores (an informal term %u2013 see Woelkerling 1998: 243) to be algae and thought it necessary to propose a new generic name (Agardhina) when placing them in the plant kingdom. There was no International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in 1834 to guide Nardo (the first ICBN was published 33 years later %u2013 see De Candolle 1867), but currently (McNeill et al. 2006), under ICBN Art 45.4, Nullipora Lamarck (1801) has priority in botanical nomenclature from 1801 even though it was first published as an animal name. This means that Agardhina Nardo (1834) is a superfluous substitute name (ICBN Art. 52) for Nullipora, as noted in Irvine & Woelkerling (1986) and Woelkerling & Irvine (1986).

Nullipora Lamarck (1801), in turn, is a superfluous substitute name for Apora Gunnerus (1768), and Apora, in turn, is a formally rejected name in favour of Phymatolithon Foslie (1898), which is formally conserved under ICBN Art. 14. See AlgaeBase accounts of Apora, Nullipora, and Phymatolithon for further details of this rather complicated nomenclatural story.

All of these generic names, including Agardhina Nardo, are typified by the type of Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus (1767: 1285), a superfluous substitute name for Millepora calcarea Pallas (1766: 265) and thus illegitimate under ICBN Art. 52 (see Woelkerling & Irvine 1986 for further information). As a result, Millepora polymorpha is automatically typified (ICBN Art. 7.5) by the type of M. calcarea, the name that ought to have been adopted under the rules. The current correct name (see ICBN Appendix VII for definition of a correct name) for Millepora calcarea is Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) Adey & McKibbin (1970: 100). For further information, see the AlgaeBase entry for Phymatolithon. - (17 Jul 2009) - M.D. Guiry

Comments: In a subsequent general algal treatise, Nardo (1835: 20) reaffirmed his treatment of coralline red algae as plants and provided a classification in which Nullipora was clearly treated as a synonym of Agardhina.

Seven generic names are based on Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus and thus are ultimately typified by the type of Millepora calcarea Pallas. Chronologically these are Apora Gunnerus (1768), Nullipora Lamarck (1801), Agardhina Nardo (1834), Agardhia Meneghini (1838), Juergensia Reichenbach (1841), Phymatolithon Foslie (1898) and Eleutherospora Heydrich (1900). Because Phymatolithon is a conserved name, it automatically takes precedence over the other six names, which must be rejected under ICBN Art. 14.4, irrespective of when they were validly published. Separate entries for each name are provided in AlgaeBase.

An account of the epitype specimen of Millepora calcarea Pallas, the correct name for Millepora polymorpha Linnaeus, is provided by Woelkerling & Irvine (1986, as Phymatolithon calcareum).

Changes in the ICBN necessitated an update (Spencer et al. 2009: 253) to the original typification (Woelkerling & Irvine 1986 58) of Millepora calcarea; the species is now lectotypified by an illustration (Ellis 1755, Tab. 27, Fig. C) cited in the protologue (Pallas 1766: 265) and epitypified by BM 000562555 (Algal Box Collection 1626) housed in the Natural History Museum, London(BM). Further information is provided in the AlgaeBase entry for Phymatolithon.

Numbers of names and species: There is only one species or infraspecific name in the database at present.

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Adey, W.H. & McKibbin, D.L. (1970). Studies on the maerl species Phymatolithon calcareum (Pallas) nov. comb. and Lithothamnium corallioides Crouan in the Ria de Vigo. Botanica Marina 13: 100-106, 16 figs.

De Candolle, A. (1867). Lois de la nomenclature botanique adoptées par le Congrès International de Botanique tenu a Paris en aout 1867. pp. 1-64. Genève et Paris: H. Gerog.

Ellis, J. (1755). An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To which is added the description of a large marine polype taken near the North Pole, by the whale-fishers, in the summer 1753. pp. [i]-xvii, [10 p. cont., err.], [i]-i03, frontispiece, pl. 1-37 [+2 unnumbered], copperplate. London: Printed for the Authors;. and Sold by A. Millar, in the Strand; J. and J. Rivington, in St. Paul's Church-Yard; and R. and J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall.

Foslie, M. (1898). Systematical survey of the Lithothamnia. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 1898(2): 1-7.

Gunnerus, J.E. (1768). Om nogle norske Coraller [On some Norwegian corals]. Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter 4: 38-73, pls 1-4, 8, 10, 11, 15.

Heydrich, F. (1900). Die Lithothamnien von Helgoland. Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, N.F. 4 (Abt. Helgoland): 63-82, pl. 2.

Irvine, L.M. & Woelkerling, W.J. (1986). Proposal to conserve Phymatolithon against Apora (Rhodophyta: Corallinaceae). Taxon 35: 731-733.

Lamarck, J.B. de (1801). Systeme des Animaux sans vertebres, ou tableau général des classes, des ordres et des genres de ces animaux; Présentant leurs caractères essentiels et leur distribution, d'après la considération de leurs rapports naturels et de leur organisation, et suivant l'arrangement établi dans les galeries du Muséum d'Hist. Naturelle, parmi leurs dépouilles conservées. Précédé du discours d'ouverture du Cours de Zoologie, donné dans le Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle l'an 8 de la République.. pp. i-viii, 1-432. Paris: Chez l'Auteur, au Muséum d'Hist[oire] Naturelle; Chez Derteville, Libraire, rue du Battoir n° 16, quartier de l'Odéon..

Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. Editio duodecima, reformata. pp. 533-1327 [1328] [+ 1-36]. Homiae [Stockholm]: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii.

McNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M., Demouline, V., Hawksworth, D.L., Marhold, K., Nicolson, D.H., Prado, J., Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Wiersema, J.H. & Turland, N.J. (2006). International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code) adopted by the Seventeenth International Botancial Congress Vienna, Austria, July 2005. pp. [i-iv], v-xviii + 1-568. Liechtenstein: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Meneghini, G. (1838). Cenni sulla organographia e fisiologia delle alghe. Nuovi Saggi della [Cesarea] Regia Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti di Padova 4: 325-388.

Nardo, G.D. (1834). De corallinis ac nulliporis auct. Isis von Oken 1834(1): 673-675.

Nardo, G.D. (1835). Considerazioni generali sulle Alghe Loro caratteri, classificazione composizione chimica e applicazioni alla medicina, all'arti, all'agricoltura ec. seguite da brevi cenni storici sui progressi dell'algologia e da due articoli riguardanti la formazione degle algaei vivi e secchi, ec. e da un'Appendice sulle Alighe. Lette al Veneto ateneo il giorno 3 agosto 1835. pp. 1-46. Venezia [Venice]: Dai tipi di Guiseppe Antonelli.

Pallas, P.S. (1766). Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adurnbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones cum selectis auctorum synonymis. pp. [i]-xvi + [17]-451. Hagae-Comitum ['s Gravenhage; The Hague]: apud Petrum van Cleef.

Philippi, R.A. (1837). Beweis, dass die Nulliporen Pflanzen sind. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 3: 387-393, figs 2-6, pl. IX.

Reichenbach, H.G.L. (1841). Repertorium herbarii, sive, Nomenclator generum plantarum systematicus synonymicus et alphabeticus ad usum practicum accommodatus... pp. i-xxv, 1-214, 1-240. Dresden: Arnold.

Spencer, M.A., Irvine, L.M. & Jarvis, C.E. (2009). Typification of Linnaean names relevant to algal nomenclature. Taxon 58: 237-260.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1988). The Coralline Red Algae: an analysis of the genera and subfamilies of nongeniculate Corallinaceae. pp. i-xi, 1-268, 259 figs, tables numbered by chapter. London & Oxford: British Museum (Natural History) & Oxford University Press.

Woelkerling, W.J. (1998). Lamarck's nullipores. In: Non-geniculate Coralline Red Algae and the Paris Muséum: Systematics and Scientific History. (Woelkerling, W.J. & Lamy, D. Eds), pp. 101-404. Paris: Publications Scientifiques du Muséum/A.D.A.C.

Woelkerling, W.J. & Irvine, L.M. (1986). The typification and status of Phymatolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). British Phycological Journal 21: 55-80, 18 figs.

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