153,631 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,983 images, 59,437 bibliographic items, 412,634 distributional records.

Chromulina L.Cienkowsky, 1870

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Phylum Ochrophyta
Class Chrysophyceae
Order Chromulinales
Family Chromulinaceae

Holotype species: Chromulina nebulosa Cienkowski

Original publication and holotype designation: Cienkowsky, L. (1870). Über Palmellaceen und einige Flagellaten. Arch. Mikroskop. Anat. 6: 421-438.

Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Most recent taxonomic treatment adopted: Kristiansen, J. & Preisig, H.R. (2001). Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Description: Cells solitary, free-swimming, variously shaped in face view and normally not compressed in transverse section (one species, C. placentula Belcher and Swale, is distinctly flattened). Front end usually obliquely truncate with an emargination from which a long hairy flagellum emerges; a second smooth flagellum is much reduced and only visible in the electron microscope. Cell surface usually naked, but in an electron microscopic study of C. placentula a covering of minute membranous scales was observed. In several species the cell surface is covered with small wart-like outgrowths which sometimes are connected by a network of delicate ridges. Cells usually free-swimming, but occasionally come to rest and attach to a substrate at the posterior end. Cells are often somewhat metabolic and may become amoeboid with loss of flagellum. Chloroplast 1-2, usually with a stigma and in some species a pyrenoid. Protoplast also contains 1-6 contractile vacuoles, 1 or several chrysolaminaran vacuoles, food vacuoles and sometimes numerous trichocyst-like bodies (mucocysts, discobolocysts) just under the cell surface. Cell division may take place while a cell is actively motile, or a cell may become immobile and invested with a gelatinous envelope prior to division. When surrounded by a gelatinous envelope, cells may divide and redivide and thus produce a palmelloid colony with a few to many cells. Species of Chromulina producing stages in which a number of flagellated cells are enclosed within a common gelatinous envelope resemble Saccochrysis spp. Many species produce stomatocysts, but sexual reproduction has not been observed. Most species occur in freshwater, but a few species are also known from brackish and marine environments. Widely distributed , sometimes common.

Information contributed by: H. R. Preisig. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 12 Sep 2014 by M.D. Guiry.

Comments: Throndsen (1997: 618) record this genus as being a member of the Family Ochromonadaceae and Order Ochromonadales.

Numbers of names and species: There are 68 species names in the database at present, of which 60 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

References
Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M. & Bossé, L. (1999). Guide d'identification du phytoplancton marin de l'estuaire et du Golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication Spéciale Canadienne des Sciences Halieutiques et Aquatiques 128: 1-387.

Nicholls, K.H. & Wujek, D.E. (2003). Chrysophycean Algae. In: Freshwater Algae of North America. (Wehr, J.D. & Sheath, R.G. Eds), pp. 471-510. San Diego: Academic Press.

Throndsen, J. (1996). The planktonic marine flagellates. In: Identifying marine phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 591-730. San Diego: Academic Press.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 12 September 2014 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=43774

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 November 2018.

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