153,840 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,012 images, 59,576 bibliographic items, 413,468 distributional records.

Valonia C.Agardh, 1823

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae
Infrakingdom Chlorophyta infrakingdom
Phylum Chlorophyta
Subphylum Chlorophytina
Class Ulvophyceae
Order Cladophorales
Family Valoniaceae

Lectotype species: Valonia aegagropila C.Agardh

Original publication:Agardh, C.A. (1823). Species algarum rite cognitae, cum synonymis, differentiis specificis et descriptionibus succinctis. Volumen primum pars posterior. pp. [vii-viii], [399]-531. Lundae [Lund]: ex officina Berlingiana.
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Taxonomic status: currently recognized as a distinct genus.

Description: Thallus composed of compressed or loosely interwoven siphonous cells forming hemispherical domes or irregular cushions of indeterminate size. Plants astipitate; annular constrictions absent. Cells elongate, subclavate, subspherical or deformed; 1-10 mm diameter, 3-20 mm long. Apical orientation maintained or lost depending on species. Branches initiated from lenticular cells; terminal and subdichotomous, or lateral and irregular; to several orders; septate only at branch points. Density of branches species specific but also influenced by environment., Branches initiated from lenticular cells. Well developed rhizoid system absent; basal cells in contact with substratum serving as rhizoidal cells. Adventitious rhizoids rare. Structural reinforcement of branches achieved by close packing and tenacular cells arising sparsely along lateral surfaces. Cell division by lenticular cell type only, not segregative division. Cells multinucleate; chloroplasts numerous per cell and discoid, each with single pyrenoid. A life history involving a biphasic, isomorphic alternation of generations was suggested. Vegetative propagation via fragmentation probably occurs. Haploid and diploid chromosome number of 12-18 and 28-38 reported for three species. Nuclear DNA amounts (4C) estimated at 10.2 and 11.4 pg in V. macrophysa and V. utricularis. Valonia is widely distributed throughout the tropics in shallow intertidal habitats, often in association with Caulerpa species and coral rubble. Cushion-like thalli can sometimes reach 25 cm or more in diameter and are often hardly recognizable but casual observation in the field. V. utricularis also abundant in metahaline near-shore pool in the Red Sea. A variety of ultrastructural studies have been carried out including observations on flagellar apparatus, chloroplasts and cell walls. Valonia widely used as model system for physiological studies of Na, K and Cl on membrane potential, and water relations. Extensive studies have been undertaken of mechanisms of cell wall deposition, and roles of cellulose synthesizing complexes and microtubules. The phylogenetic position of Valonia (excluding V. ventricosa, see Ventricaria) with respect to other general of Siphonocladales-Cladophorales complex is not clear, though it is certainly a member of the complex based on immunological data. Valonia species are distinguished exclusively on cell size and branching patterns. Some species maintain a fairly symmetrical organization (i.e., C. aegagrophila) but others do not (i.e., V. utricularia).

Information contributed by: J.L. Olsen. The most recent alteration to this page was made on 29 Aug 2011 by M.D. Guiry.

Numbers of names and species: There are 37 species names in the database at present, as well as 12 infraspecific names. Of the species names, 10 have been flagged as accepted taxonomically on the basis of the listed literature under the species name. In some instances, opinions on taxonomic validity differ from author to author and users are encouraged to form their own opinion. AlgaeBase is a work in progress and should not be regarded as a definitive source only as a guide to the literature..

Names: ('C' indicates a name that is accepted taxonomically; 'S' a homotypic or heterotypic synonym; 'U' indicates a name of uncertain taxonomic status, but which has been subjected to some verification nomenclaturally; 'P' indicates a preliminary AlgaeBase entry that has not been subjected to any kind of verification. For more information on a species click on it to activate a link to the Species database):

Click here to also show infraspecific names in the list below.

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Contributors
Some of the descriptions included in AlgaeBase were originally from the unpublished Encyclopedia of Algal Genera, organised in the 1990s by Dr Bruce Parker on behalf of the Phycological Society of America (PSA) and intended to be published in CD format. These AlgaeBase descriptions are now being continually updated, and each current contributor is identified above. The PSA and AlgaeBase warmly acknowledge the generosity of all past and present contributors and particularly the work of Dr Parker.

Descriptions of chrysophyte genera were subsequently published in J. Kristiansen & H.R. Preisig (eds.). 2001. Encyclopedia of Chrysophyte Genera. Bibliotheca Phycologica 110: 1-260.

Created: 28 December 2000 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 29 August 2011 by M.D. Guiry

Linking to this page: http://www.algaebase.org/search/genus/detail/?genus_id=33606

Citing AlgaeBase
Please cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 13 December 2018.

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