155,821 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,968 images, 60,224 bibliographic items, 439,360 distributional records.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Biliphyta
Phylum Rhodophyta
Subphylum Eurhodophytina
Class Florideophyceae
Subclass Nemaliophycidae
Order Nemaliales
Suborder Galaxaurineae
Family Galaxauraceae
Genus Galaxaura

Pictures

click on thumbnail for larger version.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Okha, Devbhoomi Dwarka district, Gujarat state, India. 11 Jul 2019. Haresh Kalasariya (hareshahir22@gmail.com). © Haresh Kalasariya.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Funchal, Madeira. 17 Jan 2019. Pedro Neves. © Pedro Neves (nevesdiver@gmail.com).

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
en su hábitat natural, en la zona Habana-Matanzas, sobre sustrato rocoso. Foto: Ángel Fernández.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; sporophyte; scale is 5 mm. 01 Jul 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; sporophyte, whorls of surface filaments; scale 1 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; gametophyte; scale is 5 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Hawaii; close up of gametophyte with smooth surface; scale 1 mm. 12 Aug 2011. J.M. Huisman. © J.M. Huisman.

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Scott Reef, Western Australia. 25 May 2011. John Huisman. © John Huisman (j.huisman@murdoch.edu.au).

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Lord Howe Island, Australia. 21 Nov 2010. M.D. Guiry. © Michael Guiry (mike.guiry@nuigalway.ie).

Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux
Panama. Tetrasporophyte — Habit showing irregular dichotomous branching.. D.S. Littler. © Diane Littler (littlerd@si.edu).

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Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia
© John Huisman (j.huisman@murdoch.edu.au)

Publication details
Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816: 263

Published in: Lamouroux, J.V.F. (1816). Histoire des polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés zoophytes. pp. [i]-lxxxiv, chart, [1]-560, [560, err], pls I-XIX, uncol. by author. Caen: De l'imprimerie de F. Poisson.
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Galaxaura.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Corallina rugosa J.Ellis & Solander

Type information
Type locality: Jamaica (Ellis & Solander 1786: 115). Notes: South & Skelton (2003: 720) mistakenly cite the Bahamas as the type locality

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), wrinkled.

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Corallina rugosa J.Ellis & Solander 1786
Dichotomaria rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816
Dichotomaria rugosa (Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816
Halysium rugosum (Ellis & Solander) Kützing 1843

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Corallina lapidescens Ellis & Solander 1786
Corallina lichenoides Ellis & Solander 1786
Galaxaura lapidescens (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816
Galaxaura annulata J.V.Lamouroux 1816
Dichotomaria lapidescens (J.Ellis & Solander) Lamarck 1816
Galaxaura lichenoides (Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux 1816
Digenea dichotoma Audouin 1828
Dichotomaria lichenoides (Ellis & Solander) Blainville 1830
Alysium lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Kützing 1843
Spongotrichum dichotomum Kützing 1847
Holonema liebmannii Areschoug 1854
Microthoe lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Harvey 1855
Galaxaura plicata Kützing 1858
Galaxaura tomentosa Kützing 1858
Microthoe tomentosa (Kützing) Montagne & Millardet 1862
Galaxaura lapidescens var. tomentosa (Kützing) J.Agardh 1876
Galaxaura lapidescens var. annuligera Piccone & Grunow 1884
Galaxaura collabens J.Agardh 1885
Actinotrichia lapidescens Vickers 1897
Galaxaura cuculligera Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura delabida Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura comans Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura flagelliformis Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura squalida Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura rudis Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura liebmannii (Areschoug) Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura ramulosa Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura coarctata Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura intricata Kjellman 1900
Galaxaura rugosa var. annulata (J.V.Lamouroux) Piccone 1901
Galaxaura subfruticulosa R.Chou 1945
Galaxaura mauritiana Børgesen 1949

Taxonomic notes
According to Silva et al. (1996), the name Galaxaura obtusata was misapplied to this species by Wynne (1995: 299). John et al. (2004) cite Actinotrichia lapidescens F. Schmitz and Galaxaura coarctata Kjellmann as synonyms of this species.

Distributional notes
This species was introduced into the Mediterranean (Verlaque et al. 2015: 161) via the Suez Canal, being first reported from Syria prior to 1990. It is now widespread on the Levantine coast. - (5 Nov 2015) - M.D. Guiry

Habitat notes
Widespread in warm seas; 3 m depth at Entedebir Island (Lipkin & Silva 2002). - (28 May 2010) - Wendy Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Habitat
According to Wang et al. (2005: 693), plants usually grew on rocky substrata from 0-10 m depths, although they were sometimes attached to the tubes o f polychaete worms.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Corallina rugosa J.Ellis & Solander)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Corallina lapidescens Ellis & Solander)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura rugosa (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux)
Europe: Spain (incl. Canary Is.) (Gallardo et al. 2016).

Atlantic Islands: Ascension (John et al. 2004, Tsiamis et al. 2017), Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003, Schneider et al. 2016), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodriguez et al. 1985, Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987, Guadalupe et al. 1995, Febles, Arias, Gil-Rodríguez, Hardisson & Sierra López 199?, Haroun et al. 2002, Aldanondo-Aristizábal, Domínguez-Alvarez & Gil-Rodríguez 2003, Gil-Rodríguez et al. 2003, John et al. 2004, Anon. 2011, Afonso-Carrillo 2014), Cape Verde Islands (John et al. 2004, Prud'homme van Reine, Haroun & Kostermans 2005), Madeira (Neto, Cravo & Haroun 2001, John et al. 2004), Salvage Islands (John et al. 2004), St Helena (John et al. 2004).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960, Wang et al 2005, Schneider et al. 2016), Mexico (Taylor 1960, Wang et al 2005).

Central America: Belize (Littler & Littler 1997), Costa Rica (Fernández-García et al. 2011), Panama (Taylor 1960, Fernández-García et al. 2011).

Caribbean Islands: Antilles (Wynne 2014), Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Cabrera, Moreira & Suárez 2004, Suárez 2005, Jover Capote & Lake Barragán 2008, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Guadeloupe (Wang et al 2005), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960, Betancourt & Herrera-Moreno, 2001), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Martinique (Rodríguez-Prieto, Michanek & Ivon 1999, Delnatte & Wynne 2016), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), St. Eustatius (van der Loos & Prud'homme van Reine 2015, van der Loos et al. 2017), Tobago (Taylor 1960), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930, Taylor 1960, Oliveira Filho 1977, Villaca et al. 2010), Colombia (Schnetter 1969, Díaz-Pulido & Díaz-Ruíz 2003), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Cameroon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Djibouti (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Egypt (Papenfuss 1968 ), Eritrea (Lipkin & Silva 2002), Gabon (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Ghana (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004, Smith, Smith & Nii Yemoh Annang 2015), Kenya (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Bolton, Oyieke & Gwanda 2007), Madagascar (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mauritius (Børgesen 1942, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Mozambique (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), São Tomé & Príncipe (Lawson & John 1987, John, Lawson & Ameka, 2003, John et al. 2004), Somalia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), South Africa (De Clerck et al. 2002, De Clerck, Tronchin & Schils 2005), Tanzania (incl. Zanzibar) (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Oliveira, Österlund & Mtolera 2005).

Indian Ocean Islands: Aldabra Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Comoros and Mayotte (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Laccadive Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Maldives (Hardy & Guiry 2003), Nicobar Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996), Réunion (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Zubia et al.), Seychelles (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: Arabian Gulf (John & Al-Thani 2014), India (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015), Iran (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Israel (Galil 2007 , Hoffman et al. 2008, Hoffman et al. 2014 ), Jordan (Papenfuss 1968 ), Lebanon (Bitar et al. 2017 ), Oman (Wynne & Jupp 1998, Wynne 2018), Sri Lanka (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Coppejans et al. 2009, Coppejans et al. 2009).

Asia: China (Hainan Island) (Titlyanova, Titlyanov & Kalita 2014, Titlyanov et al. 2015, Titlyanov et al. 2016), Japan (Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Korea (Lee & Kang 2001, Lee 2008, Hwang & Kim 2011), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014, Wang et al 2005, Lin et al. 2011, Anon. 2012, Anon. 2012), Yonaguni Island (Titlyanov et al. 2016).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Verheij & Prud'homme van Reine 1993, Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012), Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987, Kraft et al. 1999, Wang et al 2005, Ang, Sin Man Leung & Mei Mei Choi 2014), Singapore (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Pham et al. 2011), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2013, Titlyanov, Titlyanova & Belous 2015).

Australia and New Zealand: Coral Sea Islands Territory (Millar 1999), Houtman Abrolhos (Huisman 1997), Kermadec Islands (Duffy & Ahyong 2015), Lord Howe Island (Millar & Kraft 1993, Huisman 2000, Huisman 2006), New Zealand (Adams 1994, Nelson 2012), Northern Territory (Womersley 1958, Lewis 1984, Huisman 2006), Papua New Guinea (Coppejans & Millar 2000, Littler & Littler 2003), Queensland (Lewis 1984, Cribb 1996, Phillips 1997, Phillips 2002, Huisman 2006, Bostock & Holland 2010), Western Australia (Huisman 2000, Huisman & Borowitzka 2003, Huisman 2006, Huisman et al. 2009).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Federated States of Micronesia (Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Lobban & Tsuda 2003, Tsuda 2006), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996, South & Skelton 2003, Littler & Littler 2003), French Polynesia (Payri, N'Yeurt & Orempuller 2000, N'Yeurt & Payri 2010), Guam (Lobban & Tsuda 2003), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Magruder & Hunt 1979, Abbott 1999, Huisman et al. 2004, Huisman, Abbott & Smith 2007), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003), New Caledonia (Payri 2007), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Tsuda 2014), Samoan Archipelago (Skelton & South 1999).

(as Galaxaura lapidescens (J.Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960), Canary Islands (Viera-Rodriguez et al. 1987), Cape Verde Islands (Otero-Schmitt & Sanjuan 1992).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960), Mexico (Taylor 1960), Mexico (Caribbean) (Taylor 1972).

Central America: Belize (Norris & Bucher 1982, Littler & Littler 1997), Panama (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Brazil (Oliveira Filho 1977), Colombia (Taylor 1960), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Egypt (Papenfuss 1968 ), Ethiopia (Papenfuss 1968 ), Mauritius (Børgesen 1942).

South-west Asia: Iran (Sohrabipour & Rabii 1999), Israel (Papenfuss 1968 ), Jordan (Papenfuss 1968 ).

Asia: Japan (Yoshida 1998, Yoshida, Suzuki & Yoshinaga 2015), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014, Anon. 2012).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Tsutsui et al. 2005).

Pacific Islands: Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996).

(as Galaxaura annulata J.V.Lamouroux)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura lichenoides (Ellis & Solander) J.V.Lamouroux)
Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013).

(as Holonema liebmannii Areschoug)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Microthoe lapidescens (Ellis & Solander) Harvey)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura plicata Kützing)
Indian Ocean Islands: Andaman Islands (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996).

South-west Asia: India (Sahoo et al. 2001, Rao & Gupta 2015).

South-east Asia: Indonesia (Silva, Basson & Moe 1996, Atmadja & Prud'homme van Reine 2012).

(as Galaxaura tomentosa Kützing)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Microthoe tomentosa (Kützing) Montagne & Millardet)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura lapidescens var. annuligera Piccone & Grunow)
Africa: Egypt (Papenfuss 1968).

(as Galaxaura collabens J.Agardh)
South America: Chile (Ramírez & Santelices 1991), Temperate South America (Ramírez & Santelices 1991).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands: Easter Island (Børgesen 1924, Santelices & Abbott 1987).

(as Galaxaura cuculligera Kjellman)
Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Kurihara et al. 2005), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura delabida Kjellman)
Caribbean Islands: Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990).

(as Galaxaura subverticillata Kjellman)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960, Schneider 2003).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960, Littler & Littler 1997).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cayman Islands (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Suárez 2005), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960, Betancourt & Herrera-Moreno, 2001), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), St. Eustatius (van der Loos & Prud'homme van Reine 2015), Trinidad & Tobago (Duncan & Lee Lum 2006), Turks And Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Colombia (Díaz-Pulido & Díaz-Ruíz 2003), Venezuela (Ganesan 1990).

Africa: Mauritius (Børgesen 1942).

Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936, Segawa 1981, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990, Yoshida 1998), Korea (Lee & Kang 1986, Lee & Kang 2001), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013), Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996), Hawaiian Islands (HI) (Abbott 1999).

(as Galaxaura comans Kjellman)
Central America: Belize (Littler & Littler 1997).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Caribbean (Littler & Littler 2000), Cuba (Taylor 1960, Suárez 2005, Suárez, Martínez-Daranas & Alfonso 2014), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960), Netherlands Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Oliveira Filho 1977).

(as Galaxaura flagelliformis Kjellman)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980), Madeira (Levring 1974), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura squalida Kjellman)
Atlantic Islands: Bermuda (Taylor 1960), Canary Islands (Gil-Rodríguez & Afonso-Carrillo 1980), Salvage Islands (Audiffred & Weisscher 1984).

North America: Florida (FL) (Taylor 1960), Mexico (Dawson 1953).

Central America: Belize (Taylor 1960), Panama (Taylor 1945, Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Bahamas (Taylor 1960), Barbados (Taylor 1969), Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Cuba (Taylor 1960), Hispaniola (Taylor 1960), Jamaica (Taylor 1960), Lesser Antilles (Taylor 1960, Taylor 1969), Puerto Rico (Taylor 1960), Turks And Caicos Islands (Taylor 1960), Virgin Islands (Taylor 1960).

South America: Brazil (Oliveira Filho 1977), Colombia (Taylor 1960), Venezuela (Taylor 1960).

Asia: China (Liu 2008), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Pacific Islands: Solomon Islands (Womersley & Bailey 1970).

(as Galaxaura rudis Kjellman)
Asia: Japan (Okamura 1936), Taiwan (Lewis & Norris 1987, Shao 2003-2014, Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Vietnam (Pham-Hoàng 1969).

Pacific Islands: Central Polynesia (Tsuda & Walsh 2013).

(as Galaxaura liebmannii (Areschoug) Kjellman)
North America: Mexico (Taylor 1960).

Caribbean Islands: Netherlands Antilles (Taylor 1960).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura ramulosa Kjellman)
Central America: Panama (Taylor 1945).

Western Atlantic: Trop. & Subtrop. W. Atlantic (Wynne 2017).

South America: Brazil (Taylor 1930 ).

(as Galaxaura rugosa var. annulata (J.V.Lamouroux) Piccone)
Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Galaxaura subfruticulosa R.Chou)
North America: Mexico (Dawson 1953).

Central America: Islas Revillagigedo (Taylor 1945).

Asia: China (Tseng 1984, Liu 2008), Japan (Okamura 1936, Yoshida, Nakajima & Nakata 1990), South China Sea (Phang et al. 2016), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

South-east Asia: Philippines (Silva, Meñez & Moe 1987).

Australia and New Zealand: Queensland (Lewis 1984).

Pacific Islands: Fiji (N'Yeurt, South & Keats 1996), Mariana Islands (Tsuda 2003).

(as Galaxaura mauritiana Børgesen)
Africa: Mauritius (Børgesen 1949).

Asia: Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

Key references
Athanasiadis, A. (2016). Phycologia Europaea Rhodophyta Vol. I. pp. [i]-xxxxviii, 1-762. Thessaloniki: Published and distributed by the author.

Braune, W. (2008). Meeresalgen. Ein Farbbildführer zu den verbreiteten benthischen Grün- Braun- und Rotalgen der Weltmeere. pp. [1]-596, pls 1-266 (colour photographs). Ruggell: A.R.G. Gantner Verlag.

Cormaci, M., Furnari, G. & Alongi, G. (2017). Flora marina bentonica del Mediterraneo: Rhodophyta (Rhodymeniophycidae escluse). Bollettino Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali in Catania 50(380): 1-391, 53 pls.

Dawes, C.J. & Mathieson, A.C. (2008). The seaweeds of Florida. pp. [i]- viii, [1]-591, [592], pls I-LI. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida.

Huisman, J.M., Abbott, I.A., Smith, C.M. (2007). Hawaiian reef plants. pp. [1]-264, numerous colour photographs. Honolulu: A publication of the University of Hawai'i Sea Grant College Program.

Hwang, I.-K. & Kim, H.-S. (2011). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 4, Number 2. Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae, Nemaliophycidae: Acrochaetiales, Colaconematales, Palmariales, Nemaliales. Nemalian red algae. pp. [1-6], 1-111, figs 1-66. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

N'Yeurt, A.D.R. & Payri, C.E. (2010). Marine algal flora of French Polynesia III. Rhodophyta, with additions to the Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyta. Cryptogamie Algologie 31: 3-205.

Papenfuss, G.F., Mshigeni, K.E. & Chiang, Y.M. (1982). Revision of the red algal genus Galaxaura with special reference to the species occurring in the western Indian Ocean. Botanica Marina 25: 401-444, 46 figs.

Suárez, A.M., Martínez-Daranas, B. & Alfonso, Y. (2015). Macroalgas marinas de Cuba. pp. [1]-264, 229 figs. La Habana [Havana]: UH [Universidad de La Habana] Editorial.

Thida Nyunt & Soe-Htun, U. (2014). A revision on morphotaxonomy and phytogeographical distribution of the genus Galaxaura Lamouroux (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) from Myanmar. Mawlamyine University Research Journal 5(1): [1-11].

Titlyanov E.A., Titlyanova T.V. & Belous O.S. (2016). Useful marine plants of the Asia-Pacific Region countries. pp. 1-348, Many col. photo. Vladivostok: Dalnauka. [in Russian and English]

Verlaque, M., Ruitton, S., Mineur, F. & Boudouresque, C.-F. (2015). CIESM atlas of exotic species of the Mediterranean. Macrophytes. pp. [1]-362, many photograph and maps. Monaco: CIESM Publishers.

Wang, W.-L., Liu, S.-L. & Lin, S.-M. (2005). Systematics of the calcified genera of the Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta) with an emphasis on Taiwan species. Journal of Phycology 41: 685-703.

Created: 29 December 1997 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 December 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 14678 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)


Ambiye, V. & Untawale, A.G. (1991). Galaxaura rugosa (Ellis et Sol.) Lamour. from India. Seaweed Research and Utilisation 13: 97-100, 5 figs.
Hoffman, R., Israel, A., Lipkin, Y., Dubinsky, Z. & Iluz, D. (2008). First record of two seaweeds from the Israeli Mediterranean: Galaxaura rugosa (J. Ellis & Solander) J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophyta) and Codium adhaerens C. Agardh (Rhodophyta). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 56: 123-126.
Huisman, J.M., Sherwood, A.R. & Abbott, I.A. (2004). Studies of Hawaiian Galaxauraceae (Nemaliales, Rhodophyta): Large subunit rDNA gene sequences support conspecificity of Galaxaura rugosa and G. subverticillata. Cryptogamie Algologie 25: 337-352.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 July 2019.

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