153,822 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 21,012 images, 59,572 bibliographic items, 413,461 distributional records.

Gambierdiscus toxicus R.Adachi & Y.Fukuyo

Publication details
Gambierdiscus toxicus R.Adachi & Y.Fukuyo 1979: 68, figs 1-7

Published in: Adachi, R. & Fukuyo, Y. (1979). The thecal structure of a marine toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus gen. et spec. nov. collected in a ciguatera-endemic area. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 45(1): 67-71.

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Gambierdiscus.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Synonym(s)
No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Taxonomic notes
Litaker et al. (2009) note that the description of the type species by Adachi & Fukuyo included more than one species and since no type material exists they propose that Fig. 1 in Adachi & Fukuyo (1979) be designated as the lectotype for this species and that the epithecal view of isolate GTT-91 shown in Fig. 1 from Chinain et al. (1999) be designated as the epitype. They also note that the GTT-91 isolate has been well characterized genetically and the original SEM stub of this isolate archived at the Smithsonian Institution has been re-examined to provide a more detailed morphological analysis of the epitype. - (4 Dec 2009) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 36) notes this species is known to produce ciguatoxin, gambieric acid and maitotoxin. Please consult original reference for further details. Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017).

General environment
This is a marine species.

Type information
Type locality: South Pacific Ocean: Gambier Islands, French Polynesia (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 36). Holotype: May 1975; (Litaker et al. 2009: 360). Notes: Litaker et al. (2009: 360) note that the original description of this species incorporated more than one species. Given the lack of type material, they designate Fig. 1 in Adachi & Fukuyo (1979) as the lectotype for this species and the G. toxicus GTT-91 cell shown in Fig. 1 of Chinain et al. (1999) as the epitype under Article 9.7 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Chinain, M., Faust, M.A. & Pauillac, S. (1999). Morphology and molecular analyses of three toxic species of Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae): G. pacificus sp. nov., G. australes, sp. nov. and G. polynesiensis, sp. nov.. Journal of Phycology 35: 1282-1296.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Hoppenrath, M., Murray, S.A., Chomérat, N. & Horiguchi, T. (2014). Marine benthic dinoflagellates - unravelling their worldwide biodiversity. Kleine Senckenberg-Reihe Vol. 54. pp. [1]-276. Frankfurt am Main & Stuttgar: V. Mosbrugger & E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Litaker, R.W., Vandersea, M.W., Faust, M.A., Kibler, S.R., Chinain, M., Holmes, M.J., Holland, W.C., & Tester, P.A. (2009). Taxonomy of Gambierdiscus including four new species, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Gambierdiscus carolinianus, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus ruetzleri (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae). Phycologia 48(5): 344-390.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Van de Vijver, B., Sterken, M., Vyverman, W. Mataloni, G., Nedbalove, L., Kopalova, K., Elster, J., Verleyen, E. & Sabbe. K. (2010). Four new non-marine diatom taxa from the Subantarctic and Antarctic regions. Diatom Research 25(2): 431-443.

Created: 17 August 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3767 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Adachi, R. & Fukuyo, Y. (1979). The thecal structure of a marine toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus gen. et spec. nov. collected in a ciguatera-endemic area. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 45(1): 67-71.
Ballantine, D.L., Bardales, A.T. & Tosteson, T.R. (1985). Seasonal abundance of Gambierdiscus toxicus and Ostreopsis sp. in coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico. Proc. Vth Intn. Coral Reef Symp 4: 417-422.
Bomber, J.W., Tindall, D.R. & Miller, D.M. (1989). Genetic variability in toxin potencies among seventeen clones of Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 25: 617-625, 7 figs, 4 tables.
Chinain, M., Germain, M., Sako, Y., Pauillac, S. & Legrand, A.-M. (1997). Intraspecific variation in the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). I. Isozyme analysis. Journal of Phycology 33: 36-43, 5 figs, 2 tables.
Durand, M. & Berkaloff, C. (1985). Pigment composition and chloroplast organization of Gambierdiscus toxicus Adachi and Fukuyo (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 24: 217-223, 8 figs.
Richlen, M.L., Morton, S.L., Barber, P.H. & Lobel, P.S. (2008). Phylogeography, morphological variation and taxonomy of the toxic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae 7: 614-629.
Sakamoto, B., Hokama, Y., Horgen, F.D., Scheuer, P.J., Kan, Y. & Nagai, H. (2000). Isolation of a sulfoquinovosyl monoacylglycerol from Byropsis sp. (Chlorophyta): identification of a factor causing a possible species-specific ecdysis response in Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 36: 924-931.
Sakamoto, B., Nagai, H. & Hokama, Y. (1996). Stimulators of Gambierdiscus toxicus (Dinophyceae) growth: the possible role of gambieric acid-A as an endogenus growth enhancer. Phycologia 35: 350-353, 4 figs.
Thomassin, B.A., Ali Halidi, M.E.A., Quod, J.-P., Maggiorani, J.-M., Berland, B., Grzebyk, D. & Coqueugniot, J. (1992). Evolution of Gambierdiscus toxicus populations in the coral reef complex of Mayotte Island (SW Indian Ocean) during the 1985-1991 period. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 85: 449-452.
Van Dolah, F.M., Leighfield, T.A., Sandel, H.D. & Hsu, C.K. (1995). Cell division in the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus is phased to the diurnal cycle and accompanied by activation of the cell cycle regulatory protein, CDC2 kinase. Journal of Phycology 31: 395-400, 5 figs.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 12 December 2018.

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