Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech
Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech 1995: 67
Published in: Balech, E. (1995). The genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata). pp. 1-151. Sherkin Island: Sherkin Island Marine Station.
Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.
Gonyaulax monilata J.F.Howell
Type locality: North Atlantic Ocean: Indian River, Florida, USA (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 14). Holotype: 29025 14
Gonyaulax monilata J.F.Howell 1953
Gessnerium monilatum (J.F.Howell) A.R.Loeblich III 1970
Pyrodinium monilatum (J.F.Howell) F.J.R.Taylor 1976
Faust & Gulledge (2002:15) notes that this species produces a strong ichthyotoxin resulting in a paralyzing effect. Production of saxitoxin (STX) and gonyautoxins (GTX1) has been reported: the toxins are hemolytic and neurotoxic. The toxins produced do not accumulate in shellfish and are not toxic to birds. Massive fish kills have been reported from Texas bays in the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern coast of Florida. Please consult original reference for further details.
This is a marine species.
Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.
Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.
Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.
Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.
Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.
Tomas, C.R., Eds (1996). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp. 1-858. San Diego: Academic Press Inc.
Created: 26 February 2003 by Elizabeth Moran
Verified by: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry
Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1567 times since it was created.
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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 18 April 2019.