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Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech

Publication details
Alexandrium monilatum (J.F.Howell) Balech 1995: 67

Published in: Balech, E. (1995). The genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata). pp. 1-151. Sherkin Island: Sherkin Island Marine Station.
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Type species
The type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium is Alexandrium minutum Halim.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gonyaulax monilata J.F.Howell

Type information
Type locality: North Atlantic Ocean: Indian River, Florida, USA (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 14). Holotype: 29025 14

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax monilata J.F.Howell 1953
Gessnerium monilatum (J.F.Howell) A.R.Loeblich III 1970
Pyrodinium monilatum (J.F.Howell) F.J.R.Taylor 1976

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gonyaulax monilatum (Howell) Loeblich III
Gessnerium mochimaense Halim 1967

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002:15) notes that this species produces a strong ichthyotoxin resulting in a paralyzing effect. Production of saxitoxin (STX) and gonyautoxins (GTX1) has been reported: the toxins are hemolytic and neurotoxic. The toxins produced do not accumulate in shellfish and are not toxic to birds. Massive fish kills have been reported from Texas bays in the Gulf of Mexico and the eastern coast of Florida. Please consult original reference for further details.

Harmful species.

Link to identifying harmful dinoflagellates pages

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Tomas, C.R., Eds (1996). Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. pp. 1-858. San Diego: Academic Press Inc.

Created: 26 February 2003 by Elizabeth Moran

Verified by: 17 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1567 times since it was created.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 November 2018.

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