153,615 species and infraspecific names are in the database, 20,981 images, 59,407 bibliographic items, 412,628 distributional records.

Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gymnodiniales
Family Gymnodiniaceae
Genus Cochlodinium

 

Publication details
Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef 1961: 76, fig. 27

Published in: Margalef, R. (1961). Hidrografía y fitoplancton de un área marina de la costa meridional de Puerto Rico. Investigación Perquera 18(1): 33-96.

Type species
The type species (lectotype) of the genus Cochlodinium is Cochlodinium strangulatum (F.Schütt) F.Schütt.

Status of name
This name is currently regarded as a synonym of Margalefidinium polykrikoides (Margalef) F.Gómez, Richlen & D.M.Anderson

Synonym(s)
No synonyms are currently included in AlgaeBase.

Nomenclatural notes
Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017). - (18 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

Usage notes
Faust & Gulledge (2002: 22) note is a known red tide species associated with large fish kills and economic loss in Japanese and Korean waters. Please consult original reference for further details. Harmful species

General environment
This is a marine species.

Type information
Type locality: Caribbean Sea: Puerto Rico (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 21). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 21). Notes: Bahia Fosforescente, Puerto Rico (INA).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Source of current name
Gómez, F., Richlen, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2017). Molecular characterization and morphology of Cochlodinium strangulatum, the type species of Cochlodinium, and Margalefidinium gen. nov. for C. polykrikoides and allied species (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae 63: 32–44, 5 figs.

Key references
Cho, E.S., Kim, G.Y., Choi, B.D., Rhodes, L.L., Kim, T.J., Kim, G.H. & Lee, J.D. (2001). A comparative study of the harmful dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Gyrodinium impudicum using transmission electron microscope, fatty acid composition, carotenoid content, DNA quantification and gene sequences. Botanica Marina 44: 57-66.

Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Gómez, F. (2008 '2006'). Historia de las investigaciones sobre dinoflagelados marinos en España. Llull, Revista de la Sociedad Española de Historia de las Ciencias y de las Técnicas 29: 307-329. [in Spanish]

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Jeong, H.J., Kim, H.R., Kim, K.L., Kim, K.Y., Park, K.H., Kim, S.T., Yoo, Y.D., Song, J.Y., Kim, J.S., Seong, K.A., Yih, W.H., Pae, S.J., Lee, C.H., Huh, M.D. & Lee, S.H. (2002). NaOCl produced by electrolysis of natural seawater as a potential method to control marine red-tide dinoflagellates. Phycologia 41: 643-656.

Kim, C.-H., Cho, H.-J., Shin, J.-B., Moon, C.-H. & Matsouka, K. (2002). Regeneration from hyaline cysts of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae), a red tide organism along the Korean coast. Phycologia 41: 667-669.

Krakhmalny, A.F. [Krachmalny, A.F.] (2011). Dinophyta of Ukraine (illustrated book for identification). Ed by P.M.Tsarenko. pp. [1]-442, 32 figs, 117 pls. Kiev: Alterpres. [in Russian]

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Li, Z., Han, M.S., Matsuoka, K., Kim, S.Y. & Shin, H.H. (2015). Identification of the resting cyst of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Dinophyceae, Gymnodiniales) in Korean coastal sediments (Note). Journal of Phycology 51(1): 204-210.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Created: 05 March 2003 by Elizabeth Moran

Verified by: 30 August 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 3119 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Cho, E.S., Kang, D.W. & Cho, Y.C. (2000). Impact of crude oil and dispersant on determination of calcium concentration in whole cell from Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Algae 15(1): 73-79, 5 figs, 2 tables.
Cho, E.S., Kim, G.Y., Choi, B.D., Rhodes, L.L., Kim, T.J., Kim, G.H. & Lee, J.D. (2001). A comparative study of the harmful dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Gyrodinium impudicum using transmission electron microscope, fatty acid composition, carotenoid content, DNA quantification and gene sequences. Botanica Marina 44: 57-66.
Ebenezer, V. & Ki, J.-S. (2014). Biocide sodium hypochlorite decreases pigment production and induces oxidative damage in the harmful dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 29(4): 311-319.
Gárate-Lizárraga I., López-Cortes, D.J., Bustillos-Guzmán, J.J. & Hernández-Sandoval, J. (2004). Blooms of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Gymnodiniaceae). Revista de Biología Tropical 52 (Supplement 1): 51-58.
Gómez, F., Richlen, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2017). Molecular characterization and morphology of Cochlodinium strangulatum, the type species of Cochlodinium, and Margalefidinium gen. nov. for C. polykrikoides and allied species (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae 63: 32–44, 5 figs.
Hong, H.-H., Lee, H.-G., Jo, J., Kim, H.M., Kim, S.-M., Park, J.Y., Jeon, C.B., Kang, H.-S., Park, M.G., Park, C. & Kim, K.Y. (2016). The exceptionally large genome of the harmful red tide dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Dinophyceae): determination by flow cytometry. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 31(4): 373-378.
Jeong, H.J., Lim, A.S., Lee, K., Lee, M.J., Seong, K.A., Kang, N.S., Jang, S.H., Lee, K.H., Lee, S.Y., Kim, M.O., Kim, J.H., Kwon, J.E., Kang, H.C., Kim, J.S., Yih, W., Shin, K., Jang, P.K., Ryu, J.-H., Kim, S.Y., Park, J.Y., & Kim, K.Y. (2017). Ichthyotoxic Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tides offshore in the South Sea, Korea in 2014: I. Temporal variations in three-dimensional distributions of red-tide organisms and environmental factors. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(2): 101-130.
Kang, Y.S., Kwon, J.N. & An, K.H. (2006). Characteristics of organic substances produced from Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae). Algae 21(2): 253-259, 6 figs, 3 tables. [in Korean]
Kim, C.-H., Cho, H.-J., Shin, J.-B., Moon, C.-H. & Matsouka, K. (2002). Regeneration from hyaline cysts of Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae), a red tide organism along the Korean coast. Phycologia 41: 667-669.
Kim, C.S., Lee, S.J., Kim, H.G. & Lee, J.S. (2001). Screening for toxic compounds in the red tide dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides: is it toxic plankton?. Algae 16(4): 457-462, 2 figs, 3 tables.
Lee, H.-G., Kim, H.M., Min, J., Kim, K., Park, M.G., Jeong, H.J. & Kim, K.Y. (2017). An advanced tool, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), for absolute quantification of the red-tide dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Dinophyceae). Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(3): 189-197.
Lee, M.J., Jeong, H.J., Kim, J.S., Jang, K.J., Kang, N.S., Jang, S. H., Lee, H.B., Lee, S.B., Kim, H.S. & Choi, C.H. (2017). Ichthyotoxic Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tides offshore in the South Sea, Korea in 2014: III. Metazooplankton and their grazing impacts on red-tide organisms and heterotrophic protists. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(4): 285-308.
Li, Z., Han, M.S., Matsuoka, K., Kim, S.Y. & Shin, H.H. (2015). Identification of the resting cyst of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Dinophyceae, Gymnodiniales) in Korean coastal sediments (Note). Journal of Phycology 51(1): 204-210.
Lim, A.S., Jeong, H.J., Seong, K.A., Lee, M.J., Kang, N.S., Jang, S.H., Lee, K.H., Park, J.Y., Jang, T.Y. & Yoo, Y.D. (2017). Ichthyotoxic Cochlodinium polykrikoides red tides offshore in the South Sea, Korea in 2014: II. Heterotrophic protists and their grazing impacts on red-tide organisms. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(3): 199-222.
Oh, S.J., Yoon, Y.H., Kim, D.-I, Shimasaki, Y., Oshima, Y. & Honjo, T. (2006). Effects of light quantity and quality on the growth of the harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Dinophyceae . Algae 21(3): 311-316, 2 figs. [in Korean]
Park, J.G., Jeong, M.K., Lee, J.A., Cho, K.-J. & Kwon, O.-S. (2001). Diurnal vertical migration of a harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides (Dinophyceae) during a red tide in costal waters of Namhae Island, Korea. Phycologia 40: 292-297.
Park, T.-G., Kang, Y.-S., Park, Y.-T., Bae, H.-M. & Lee, Y. (2009). Detection of fish killing dinoflagellates Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Karlodinium veneficum (Dinophyceae) in the East China Sea by real-time PCR. Algae 24(2): 105-110, 1 fig, 3 tables.
Reñé, A., Garcés, E. & Camp, J. (2013). Phylogenetic relationships of Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef (Gymnodiniales, Dinophyceae) from the Mediterranean Sea and the implications of its global biogeography. Harmful Algae 25: 39-46.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 19 November 2018.

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