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Levanderina fissa (Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Gert Hansen, N.Daugbjerg & M.Ellegaard

Publication details
Levanderina fissa (Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Gert Hansen, N.Daugbjerg & M.Ellegaard 2014: 272, figs 1-77

Published in: Moestrup, O., Hakanen, P., Hansen, G., Daugbjerg, N. & Ellegaard, M. (2014). On Levanderina fissa gen. & comb. nov. (Dinophyceae) (syn. Gymnodinium fissum, Gyrodinium instriatum, Gyr. uncatenum), a dinoflagellate with a very unusual sulcus. Phycologia 53(3): 265-292, 77 figs.
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Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Levanderina.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Gymnodinium fissum Levander

Type information
Type locality: Stora Lovo, Espoo, Finland (Moestrup et al. 2014: 266). Notes: Finland: sea near Helsingfors (INA).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Gymnodinium fissum Levander 1894
Gyrodinium fissum (Levander) Kofoid & Swezy 1921

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Gyrodinium pavillardii Biecheler 1952
Gyrodinium uncatenum Hulburt 1957
Gyrodinium instriatum Freudenthal & J.J.Lee 1963
Gymnodinium instriatum (Freudenthal & J.J.Lee) D.W.Coats 2002
Gymnodinium uncatenum (Hulburt) Hallegraeff 2002

Usage notes
Harmful species (Lassus et al. 2017). - (19 May 2017) - M.D. Guiry

General environment
This is a marine species.

Detailed distribution with sources
(as Gymnodinium fissum Levander)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004), Finland (Levander 1894, Moestrup et al. 2014).

(as Gyrodinium fissum (Levander) Kofoid & Swezy)
Europe: Black Sea (Goméz & Boicenco 2004, BSPC Editorial Board 2014), Britain (Parke & Dixon 1976, Dodge 1981), Mediterranean (Gómez 2003).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (McCarthy 2013).

(as Gyrodinium pavillardii Biecheler)
Europe: Black Sea (Goméz & Boicenco 2004, BSPC Editorial Board 2014), Romania (Caraus 2002, Caraus 2012).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (McCarthy 2013).

(as Gyrodinium uncatenum Hulburt)
Europe: Baltic Sea (Hällfors 2004).

North America: Massachusetts (Moestrup et al. 2014).

(as Gyrodinium instriatum Freudenthal & J.J.Lee)
Europe: Portugal (Moita & Vilarinho 1999, Haywood et al. 2007, Moestrup et al. 2014).

North America: Maryland (Eissler et al. 2009), Texas (Moestrup et al. 2014), United States of America (Moestrup et al. 2014 ).

South America: Colombia (Lozano-Duque, Velasquez & Navas S 2011).

Asia: China (Liu 2008), Taiwan (Shao 2003-2014).

(as Gymnodinium uncatenum (Hulburt) Hallegraeff)
North America: Maryland (Coats, Tyler & Anderson 1984).

Australia and New Zealand: Australia (Thessen, Patterson & Murray 2012, McCarthy 2013).

(as Levanderina fissa (Levander) Moestrup, Hakanen, Gert Hansen, N.Daugbjerg & M.Ellegaard)
Europe: Finland (Moestrup et al. 2014), Netherlands (Veen et al. 2015), Romania (Caraus 2017).

North America: Mexico (Escobar-Morales & Hernández-Becerril 2015 ).

Central America: Baja California (Gárate-Lizárraga 2014), Gulf of California (Escobar-Morales & Hernández-Becerril 2015).

Key references
Escobar-Morales, S. & Hernández-Becerril, D.U. (2015). Free-living marine planktonic unarmoured dinoflagellates from the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Pacific. Botanica Marina 58(1): 9-22.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Created: 13 June 2014 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 19 May 2017 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 1139 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Gárate-Lizárraga, I. (2014). Proliferation of Levanderina fissa and Polykrikos hartmannii (Dinophyceae: Gymnodiniales) in Bahía De La Paz, Gulf of California, México. CICIMAR Oceánides 29(2): 25-35.
Moestrup, O., Hakanen, P., Hansen, G., Daugbjerg, N. & Ellegaard, M. (2014). On Levanderina fissa gen. & comb. nov. (Dinophyceae) (syn. Gymnodinium fissum, Gyrodinium instriatum, Gyr. uncatenum), a dinoflagellate with a very unusual sulcus. Phycologia 53(3): 265-292, 77 figs.

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Citing AlgaeBase
Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 21 October 2017.

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