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Alexandrium minutum Halim

Classification:
Empire Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromista
Subkingdom Harosa (supergroup SAR)
Infrakingdom Halvaria
Phylum Miozoa
Subphylum Myzozoa
Infraphylum Dinozoa
Superclass Dinoflagellata
Class Dinophyceae
Order Gonyaulacales
Family Ostreopsidaceae
Genus Alexandrium

Pictures

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Alexandrium minutum Halim
© Geogina McDermott (robin.raine@nuigalway.ie).

 

Publication details
Alexandrium minutum Halim 1960: 101, fig. 1 a-g

Published in: Halim, Y. (1960). Alexandrium minutum, n. gen. n. sp. dinoflagellé provocant des "eaux rouges". Vie et Milieu 11: 102-105.

Type species
This is the type species (holotype) of the genus Alexandrium.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Origin of species name
Adjective (Latin), very small, minute (Stearn 1973).

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Pyrodinium minutum (Halim) Taylor
Alexandrium ibericum Balech 1985
Alexandrium lusitanicum Balech 1985
Alexandrium angustitabulatum F.J.R.Taylor 1995

Taxonomic notes
Costas et al. (1995: 801-807) contains a discussion of the synonymy of this species and Alexandrium lusitanicum Balech.

Balech (1995: 27) regards Alexandrium lusitanicum as a separate species.

Usage notes
Armoured, marine, planktonic dinoflagellate. Widely distributed and associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) blooms in coastal regions. Faust & Gulledge (2002: 13) notes this species is a strong producer of PSP gonyautoxins (GTX): GTX1, GTX2 and GTX3, which can affect humans, mammals, birds and possibly fish. Please consult original reference for further details. Harmful species.

Link to identifying harmful dinoflagellates pages

General environment
This is a marine species.

Description
Balech (1989: 206) notes the following descriptive information about this species: Small species, somewhat irregularly oval, sometimes a little longer than wide. Neither spines nor horns present. Cingulum deeply excavated, its right end displaced posteriorly one cingular width. Apical pore plate (Po) large, with a central foramen shaped like a comma. Rhomboidal first apical plate in direct or indirect contact (by a thread-like process of variable length) with Po. Sixth precingular narrow. Sulcus shallow. Posterior sulcal plate (S.p.) wider than long. Thin thecal walls. A very faint, irregular and incomplete reticulum is often seen in some plates, especially in the S.p. and the 1. Length: usually 17-29 µm. The same paper contains extensive observations and discussion and 27 figs.

Type information
Type locality: Mediterranean Sea: Alexandra Harbour, Egypt (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 13). Holotype: (Faust & Gulledge 2002: 13).

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Balech, E. (1989). Redescription of Alexandrium minutum Halim (Dinophyceae) type species of the genus Alexandrium. Phycologia 28: 206-211.

Balech, E. (1995). The genus Alexandrium Halim (Dinoflagellata). pp. 1-151. Sherkin Island: Sherkin Island Marine Station.

Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Diogene, J., Fraga, S., Sampedro, N. & Figueroa, R.I. (2006). Resting cysts of the toxigenic dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium in recent sediments from the Western Mediterranean coast, including the first description of cysts of A. kutnerae and A. peruvianum. European Journal of Phycology 41(3): 293-302.

Brown, L., Bresnan, E., Graham, J., Lacaze, J.-P, Turrell, E. & Collins, C. (2010). Distribution, diversity and toxin composition of the genus Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) in Scottish waters. European Journal of Phycology 45(4): 375-393.

Fabro, E., Almandoz, G.O., Ferrario, M., John, U., Tillmann, U., Toebe, K., Krock, B. & Cembella, A. (2017). Morphological, molecular, and toxin analysis of field populations of Alexandrium genus from the Argentine Sea. Journal of Phycology 53(6): 1206-1222.

Faust, M.A. & Gulledge, R.A. (2002). Identifying harmful marine dinoflagellates. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 42: 1-144.

Figueroa, R.I., Garcés, E. & Bravo, I. (2007). Comparative study of the life cycles of Alexandrium tamatum and Alexandrium minutum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 1039-1053.

Gómez, F. (2008). Phytoplankton invasions: comments on the validity of categorizing the non-indigenous dinoflagellates and diatoms in European Seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 620-628.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Harlow, L.D., Koutoulis, A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (2007). S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes from eleven marine dinoflagellates. Phycologia 46: 46-53.

Kim, K.-Y., Yoshida, M. & Kim, C.-H. (2005). Molecular phylogeny of three hitherto unreported Alexandrium species: Alexandrium hiranoi, Alexandrium leei and Alexandrium satoanum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) inferred from the 18S and 26S rDNA sequence data. Phycologia 44: 361-368.

Larsen, J. & Nguyen-Ngoc, L. [eds.] (2004). Potentially toxic microalgae of Vietnamese waters. Opera Botanica 140: 5-216.

Lassus, P., Chomérat, N., Hess, P. & Nézan, E. (2017 '2016'). Toxic and harmful microalgae of the World Ocean. Micro-algues toxiques et nuisibles de l'Océan Mondial. IOC Manuals and guides, 68 (Bilingual English/French). pp. 1-523, 54 pls. Denmark: International Society for the Study of Harmful Algae/ Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Leaw, C.P., Lim, P.T., Ng, B.K., Cheah, M.Y., Ahmad, A. & Usup, G. (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of Alexandrium species and Pyrodinium bahamense (Dinophyceae) based on theca morphology and nuclear ribosomal gene sequence. Phycologia 44: 550-565.

Lewis, N.L., Xu, W., Jericho, S.K., Kreuzer, H.J., Jericho, M.H. & Cembella, A.D. (2006). Swimming speed of three species of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) as determined by digital in-line holography. Phycologia 45: 61-70.

Lim, P.-T., Leaw, C.-P., Usup, G., Kobiyama, A., Koike, K. & Ogata, T. (2006). Effects of light and temperature on growth, nitrate uptake, and toxin production of two tropical dinoflagellates: Alexandrium tamiyavanichii and Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 786-799.

McCauley, L.A.R., Erdner, D.L., Nagai, S., Richlen, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2009). Biogeographic analysis of the globally distributed harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) on rRNA gene sequences and microsatellite markers. Journal of Phycology 45(2): 454-463, 3 figs, 1 table.

Nascimento, S.M., Purdie, D.A., Lilly, E.L., Larsen, J. & Morris, S. (2005). Toxin profile, pigment composition, and large subunit rDNA phylogenetic analysis of an Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) strain isolated from the Fleet Lagoon, United Kingdom . Journal of Phycology 41: 343-353.

Penna, A., Fraga, S., Masó, M., Giacobbe, M.G., Bravo, I., Garcés, E., Vila, M., Bertozzini, E., Adreoni, F., Lugliè, A. & Vernesi, C. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) species based on sequences of 5.8S gene and Internal Transcript Spacers of the rRNA operon. European Journal of Phycology 43(2): 163-178, 25 figs, 3 tables.

Sournia, A. (1986). Atlas du phytoplancton marin. Volume I: Cyanophycées, Dictyophycées, Dinophycées, Raphidophycées. pp. [1]-219. Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 15, quai Anatole France - 75700 Paris.

Steidinger, K.A. & Tangen, K. (1996). Dinoflagellates. In: Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. (Tomas, C.R. Eds), pp. 387-584. San Diego: Academic Press.

Touzet, N. & Raine, R. (2007). Discrimination of Alexandrium andersoni and A. minutum (Dinophyceae) using LSU rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and fluorescent whole-cell hybridization. Phycologia 46: 168-177.

Created: 07 May 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 24 April 2018 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 11837 times since it was created.

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References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Angles, S., Garces, E., Reñe, E. & Sampedro, N. (2012). Life-cycle alternations in Alexandrium minutum natural populations from the NW Mediterranean Sea. Harmful Algae 16: 1-11.
Balech, E. (1989). Redescription of Alexandrium minutum Halim (Dinophyceae) type species of the genus Alexandrium. Phycologia 28: 206-211.
Bolch, C.J., Blackburn, S.I., Cannon, J.A. & Hallegraeff, G.M. (1991). The resting cyst of the red-tide dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae). Phycologia 30: 215-219.
Carrera, M.; Garet, E.; Barreiro, A.; Garcés, E., Pérez, D., Guisande, C. & González-Fernández, A. (2010). Generation of monoclonal antibodies for the specific immunodetection of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim from Spanish waters. Harmful Algae 9: 272-280.
Costas, E., Zardoya, R., Bautista, J., Garrido, A., Rojo, C. & López-Rodas, V. (1995). Morphospecies vs. genospecies in toxic marine dinoflagellates: an analysis of Gymnodinium catenatum/Gyrodinium impudicum and Alexandrium minutum/A. lusitanicum using antibodies, lectins, and gene sequences. Journal of Phycology 31: 801-807, 1 fig, 5 tables.
Figueroa, R.I., Garcés, E. & Bravo, I. (2007). Comparative study of the life cycles of Alexandrium tamatum and Alexandrium minutum (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 1039-1053.
Figueroa, R.I., Vásquez, J.A., Massanet, A., Murado, M.A. & Bravo, I. (2011). Interactive effects of salinity and temperature on planozygote and cyst formation of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) in culture. Journal of Phycology 47(1): 13-24.
Garcés, E., Bravo, I., Vila, M., Figueroa, R.I., Masó, M. & Sanpedro, N. (2004). Relationship between vegetative cells and cyst production during Alexandrium minutum bloom in Arenys de Mar harbour (NW Mediterranean). J. Plankton Res. 26: 637-645.
Halim, Y. (1960). Alexandrium minutum, n. gen. n. sp. dinoflagellé provocant des "eaux rouges". Vie et Milieu 11: 102-105.
Hansen, G., Daugbjerg, N. & Franco, J.M. (2003). Morphology, toxin composition and LSU rDNA phylogeny of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) from Denmark, with some morphological observations on other European strains. Harmful Algae 2: 317-335.
Lenning, K. van, Vila, M., Masó, M., Garcés, E., Anglès, S., Sampedro, N., Morales-Blake, A. & Camp, J. (2007). Short-term variations in development of a recurrent toxic Alexandrium minutum-dominated dinoflagellate bloom induced by meteorological conditions. Journal of Phycology 43: 892-907.
Lewis, A.M., Coates, L.N., Turner, A.D., Percy, L. & Lewis, J. (2018). A review of the global distribution of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) and comments on ecology and associated paralytic shellfish toxin profiles, with a focus on northern Europe (Review). Journal of Phycology 54(5): 581-598.
Lim, P.-T., Leaw, C.-P., Usup, G., Kobiyama, A., Koike, K. & Ogata, T. (2006). Effects of light and temperature on growth, nitrate uptake, and toxin production of two tropical dinoflagellates: Alexandrium tamiyavanichii and Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology 42: 786-799.
Lippemeier, S., Frampton, D.M.F., Blackburn, S.I., Geier, S.C. & Negri, A.P. (2003). Influence of phosphorus limitation on toxicity and photosynthesis of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) monitored by in-line detection of variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Journal of Phycology 39: 320-331.
Llaveria, G., Figueroa, R.I., Garcés, E. & Berdalet, E. (2009). Cell cycle and cell mortality of Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) under small-scale turbulence conditions . Journal of Phycology 45(5): 1106-1115.
Maguer, J.-F., L'Helguen, S., Madec, C., Labry, C. & Le Corre, P. (2007). Nitrogen uptake and assimilation kinetics in Alexandrium minutum (Dynaophyceae): effect of N-limited growth rate on nitrate and ammonium interactions. Journal of Phycology 43(2): 295-303, 6 figs, 2 tables.
McCauley, L.A.R., Erdner, D.L., Nagai, S., Richlen, M.L. & Anderson, D.M. (2009). Biogeographic analysis of the globally distributed harmful algal bloom species Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) on rRNA gene sequences and microsatellite markers. Journal of Phycology 45(2): 454-463, 3 figs, 1 table.
Nascimento, S.M., Purdie, D.A., Lilly, E.L., Larsen, J. & Morris, S. (2005). Toxin profile, pigment composition, and large subunit rDNA phylogenetic analysis of an Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae) strain isolated from the Fleet Lagoon, United Kingdom . Journal of Phycology 41: 343-353.
Touzet, N. & Raine, R. (2007). Discrimination of Alexandrium andersoni and A. minutum (Dinophyceae) using LSU rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes and fluorescent whole-cell hybridization. Phycologia 46: 168-177.
Van Lemming, K., Vila, M., Maso, M., Garcés, E., Anglès, S., Sampedro, N., Morales-Blake, A. & Camp, J. (2007). Short-term variations in development of a recurrent toxic Alexandrium minutum-dominated dinoflagellate bloom induced by meteorological conditions. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 892-907.

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Cite this record as:
M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2018. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 13 December 2018.

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