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Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing

Classification:
Empire Prokaryota
Kingdom Eubacteria
Subkingdom Negibacteria
Phylum Cyanobacteria
Class Cyanophyceae
Subclass Oscillatoriophycidae
Order Chroococcales
Family Microcystaceae
Genus Microcystis

Pictures

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Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
*CYANOpro. 06 Apr 2017. Sergei Shalygin. © Creative commons.

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
*CYANOpro. 06 Apr 2017. Sergei Shalygin. © Creative commons.

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
*CYANOpro. 06 Apr 2017. Sergei Shalygin. © Creative commons.

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
Individual cells, BF image. Stanwick Lakes Northamptonshire, UK.. 03 Aug 2006. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
Clathrate colonies. Stanwick Lakes Northamptonshire, UK.. 03 Aug 2006. © C.F.Carter (chris.carter@6cvw.freeuk.com).

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
Bremerton, Washington, USA; Kitsap Lake, Palmer-Maloney, 100x, DIC. 18 May 2009. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
Bremerton, Washington, USA; Kitsap lake, 100x, DIC. 12 Oct 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing
Bremerton, Washington, USA; Kitsap lake, 100x, DIC. 12 Oct 2008. Karl Bruun. © Karl Bruun (skogenman@earthlink.net).

 

Publication details
Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing 1846: 6

Published in: Kützing, F.T. (1846). Tabulae phycologicae; oder, Abbildungen der Tange. Vol. I, fasc. 1 pp. 1-8, pls 1-10. Nordhausen: Gedruckt auf kosten des Verfassers (in commission bei W. Köhne).
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Type species
This is the type species (lectotype) of the genus Microcystis.

Status of name
This name is of an entity that is currently accepted taxonomically.

Basionym
Micraloa aeruginosa Kützing

Type information
Type locality: bei Weisenfels in einem stagnirenden Wasser (Silva 1996-to date).see above.

Origin of species name
Adjective A (Latin), verdigris (Stearn 1973).

Homotypic Synonym(s)
Micraloa aeruginosa Kützing 1833
Diplocystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Trevisan 1848
Polycystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing 1849
Clathrocystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Henfrey 1856

Heterotypic Synonym(s)
Clathrocystis aeruginosa var. major Unknown authority
Microcystis aeruginosa f. aeruginosa Kützing
Cagniardia cyanea (Kützing) Trevisan
Palmella cyanea Kützing 1843
Anacystis cyanea (Kützing) F.E.Drouet & W.A.Daily 1952

Nomenclatural notes
Day et al. (1995: 203) records the authority for this species as (Kützing) Kützing.

Leghari et al. (2005: 203) cite Microcystis aeruginosa Bréb. - (22 May 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Leghari et al. (2005: 203) cite the author as Bréb. - (28 May 2007) - Wendy Guiry

Usage notes
Harmful species

General environment
This is a marine/freshwater species.

Detailed distribution with sources (Click to Load)

Key references
Cao, X., Strojsová, A., Znachor, P. & Zapomelová, E. (2005). Detection of extracellular phosphatases in natural spring phytoplankton of a shallow eutrophic lake (Donghu, China). European Journal of Phycology 40: 251-258.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D., Eds (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. Paris: UNESCO.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. & Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Huber-Pestalozzi, G. (1938). Das Phytoplankton des Süßwassers. Systematik und Biologie. 1. Teil. Blaualgen. Bakterien. Pilze. In: Die Binnengewässer. Einzeldarstellungen aus der Limnologie und ihren Nachbargebieten Band 16, 1 . Teil. (Thienemann, A. Eds), pp. 1-342. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.

Kim, B.-H., Oh, H.-M., Lee, Y.-K., Choi, G.-G., Ahn, C.-Y., Yoon, B.-D. & Kim, H.-S. (2006). Simple method for RNA preparation from cyanobacteria (Note). Journal of Phycology 42: 1137-1141.

Komárek, J. & Anagnostidis, K. (1999). Cyanoprokaryota. 1. Chroococcales. In: Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa. Begründet von A. Pascher. Band 19/1. (Ettl, H., Gärtner, G., Heynig, H. & Mollenhauer, D. Eds), pp. 1-548. Heidelberg & Berlin: Spektrum, Akademischer Verlag.

Leghari, M.K., Qureshi, R.M., Mashiatullah, A., Yaqoob, N. & Javed, T. (2005). Harmful algal species from various freshwater localities of Pakistan. Int. J. Phycol. Phycochem. 1(2): 199-206.

McGregor, G. (2013). Freshwater Cyanobacteria from North-Eastern Australia: 2. Chroococcales. Phytotaxa 133: 1-130.

McGregor, G., Fabbro, L.D. & Lobegeiger, J.S. (2007). Freshwater planktic Chroococcales (Cyanoprokaryota) from North-Eastern Australia: a morphological evaluation. Nova Hedwigia 84(3/4): 299-331.

Pankow, H. (1976). Algenflora der Ostsee. II. Plankton (einschliesslich benthischer Kieselalgen). pp. 1-493, 880 figs, 26 pls. Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Park, J.-G. (2012). Algal flora of Korea. Volume 5, Number 1. Cyanophyta: Cyanophyceae; Chlrococcales, Oscillatoriales Freshwater Cyanoprokaryota I. pp. [1-6], 1-71, figs 1-101. Incheon: National Institute of Biological Resources.

Rico, M., Altamirano, M., Lopez-Rodas, V. & Costas, E. (2006). Analysis of polygenic traits of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) strains by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) procedures: 1. Size and shape of colonies and cells. Phycologia 45: 237-242.

Rohrlack, T. & Hyenstrand, P. (2007). Fate of intracellular microcystins in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae). Phycologia 46(3): 277-283, 3 figs, 1 table.

Shen, W., Wen, J.-F, Sun, G.-L., Lu, Y. (2005). Identification of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) genes from Microcystis (Cyanobacteria: Chroococcales) and theoretical analyses of the potential of cyanobacterial TIM as a target for designing specific inhibitors. Phycologia 44: 447-452.

Staehr, P.A. & Birkeland, M.J. (2006). Temperature acclimation of growth, photosynthesis and respiration in two mesophilic phytoplankton species. Phycologia 45(6): 648-656.

Tandon, R,, Kesarwani, S., Mishra,A.,Dikshit, A. & Tiwari, G.L. (2016). Genus Microcystis Kuetzing ex Lemmermann (Chroococcales, Cyanoprokaryota) from India. Phykos 46(2): 4-13, 4 pls.

Toepel, J., Langner, U. & Wilhelm, C. (2005). Combination of flow cytometry and single cell absorption spectroscopy to study the phytoplankton structure and to calculate the chl a specific absorption coefficients at the taxon level. Journal of Phycology 41(6): 1099-1109.

Whitton, B.A. (2011). Cyanobacteria (Cyanophyta). In: The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Second edition. (John, D.M., Whitton, B.A. & Brook, A.J. Eds), pp. 31-158. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Xia Bangmei [Xia, B.-M.] (2017). Flora algarum marinarum sinicarum Tomus I Cyanophyta. pp. [1-8], i-xix, 1-176, pls I-IV. Beijing: Science Press. [in Chinese]

Created: 11 April 2002 by M.D. Guiry

Verified by: 11 March 2019 by M.D. Guiry

Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 21515 times since it was created.

Verification of data
Users are responsible for verifying the accuracy of information before use, as noted on the website Content page.

References
(Please note: only references with the binomials in the title are included. The information is from the Literature database.)

Aftab, J. & Shameel, M. (2006). Phytochemistry and bioactivity of Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroocophyceae Shameel) from miani Hor, Pakistan. Int. J. Phycol. Phycochem. 2: 137-148.
Agha, R., Cirés, S., Wörmer, L., Quesada, A. (2013). Limited stability of microcystins in oligopeptide compositions of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria): implications in the definition of chemotypes. Toxins 5: 1089-1104.
Azevedo, S.M.O., Evans, W.R., Carmichael, W.W. & Namikoshi, M. (1994). First report of microcystins from Brazilian isolate of cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Journal of Applied Phycology 6: 261-265.
Bañares-España, E., López-Rodas, V., Salgado, C., Costas, E. & Flores-Moya, A. (2006). Inter-strain variability in the photosynthetic use of inorganic carbon, exemplified by the pH compensation point, in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Aquatic Botany 85: 159-162.
Bickel, H., Lyck, S. & Utkilen, H. (2000). Energy state and toxin content - experiments on Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroococcales, Cyanophyta). Phycologia 39: 212-218.
Bittencourt-Oliveira, M. do C., de Oliveira, M.C. & Bolch, C.J.S. (2001). Genetic variability of Brazilian strains of the Microcystis aeruginosa complex (Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyceae) using the phycocyanin intergenic spacer and flanking regions (cpcBA). Journal of Phycology 37: 810-818.
Bouchard, J.N. & Purdie, D.A. (2011). Effect of elevated temperature, darkness, and hydrogen peroxide treatment on oxidative stress and cell death in the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Journal of Phycology 47(6): 1316-1325.
Box, J.D. (1980). A simple technique for washing microalgae in preparation for laboratory culture experiments, with particular reference to Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz emend. Elenkin. British Phycological Journal 15: 125-130, 2 tables.
Box, J.D. (1981). Enumeration of cell concentrations in suspensions of colonial freshwater microalgae with particular reference to Microcystis aeruginosa. British Phycological Journal 16: 153-164.
Box, J.D. (1988). Cryopreservation of the blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (Short Note). British Phycological Journal 23: 385-386, 1 table.
Brooks, W.P. & Codd, G.A. (1987). Immunological and toxicological studies on Microcystis aeruginosa peptide toxin. British Phycological Journal 22: 310.
Caiola, M.G. & Pellegrini, S. (1984). Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) by Bdellovibrio-like bacteria. Journal of Phycology 20: 471-475, 10 figs.
Carrillo, E., Ferrero, L.M., Alonso-Andicoberry, C., Basanta, A., Martin, A., López-Rodas, V. & Costas, E. (2003). Interstrain variability in toxin production in populations of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa from water-supply reservoirs of Andalusia and lagoons of Doñana National Park (southern Spain). Phycologia 42: 269-274.
Cole, G.T. & Wynne, M.J. (1974). Endocytosis of Microcystis aeruginosa by Ochromonas danica. Journal of Phycology 10: 397-410, 27 figs.
Costas, E., López-Rodas, V., Javier Toro, F. & Flores-Moya, A. (2008). The number of cells in colonies of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa satifies Benford's law. Aquatic Botany 89: 341-343.
Deblois, C.P. & Juneau, P. (2012). Comparison of resistance to light stress in toxic and non-toxic strains of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyta). Journal of Phycology 48(4): 1002-1011.
Ding, Y., Gan, N., Li, J., Sedmak, B. & Song, L. (2012). Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptotic-like cell death in Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroococcales, Cyanobacteria) in a dose-dependant manner. Phycologia 51(5): 567-575.
Dittmann, E., Meißner, K. & Börner, T. (1996). Conserved sequences of peptide synthetase genes in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Phycologia 35: 62-67, 5 figs, 1 table.
Doers, M.P. & Parker, D.L. (1988). Properties of Microcystis aeruginosa and M. flos-aquae (Cyanophyta) in culture: taxonomic implications. Journal of Phycology 24: 502-508.
Dziga, D., Goral, T., Bialczyk, J. & Lechowski, Z. (2009). Extracellular enzymes of the Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7813 strain are inhibited in the presence of hydroquinone and pyrogallol, allelochemicals produced by aquatic plants (note). Journal of Phycology 45(6): 1299-1303.
Flower, R.J. (1982). The occurrence of an epiphytic diatom on Microcystis aeruginosa. Irish Naturalists' Journal 20: 553-554.
Ganf, G.G. & Schache, M. (1983). Growth and phosphate uptake by single cells and colonies of Microcystis aeruginosa. British Phycological Journal 18: 213.
García-Villada, L., Rico, M., Altamirano, M., Sánchez-Martín, L., López-Rodas, V. & Costas, E. (2004). Occurrence of copper resistant mutants in the toxic Cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa: characterisation and future implications in the use of copper sulphate as an algaecide. Water Research 38: 2207-2213.
Gremberghe, I. van, Leliaert, F., Mergeay, J., Vanormelingen, P., Van der Gucht, K., Debeer, A.E., Lacerot, G., De Meester, L. & Vyverman, W. (2011). Lack of phylogeographic structure in the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa suggests global dispersal. PLoS ONE 6: e19561 .
Grilli Caiola, M. & Pellegrini, S. (1984). Lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz.) by Bdellovibrio-like bacteria. Journal of Phycology 20: 471-475.
Hosmani, S.P. (1976). Effect of extract of Microcystis aeruginosa on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Beitr. Biol. Pflanzenphysiol 51: 321-324.
Humphries, S.E. & Widjaja, F. (1979). A simple method for separating cells of Microcystis aeruginosa for counting. British Phycological Journal 14: 313-316, 3 figs, 1 table.
Ichimura, T. & Watanabe, M.M. (1977). An axenic clone of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. emend. Elekin from Lake Kasumigaura. Bulletin of the Japanese Society for Phycology 25: 177-181.
Jiang, H. & Qiu, B. (2005). Photosynthetic adaptation of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) to prolonged UV-B exposure . Journal of Phycology 41: 983-992.
Kim, H., Jo, B.Y. & Kim, H.S. (2017). Effect of different concentrations and ratios of ammonium, nitrate, and phosphate on growth of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Microcystis aeruginosa isolated from the Nakong River, Korea. Algae. An International Journal of Algal Research 32(4): 275-284.
Latour, D., Salençon, M.-J., Reyss, J.-L. & Giraudet, H. (2007). Sedimentary imprint of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) blooms in Grangent Reservoir (Loire, France). Journal of Phycology 43(3): 417-425, 7 figs.
Li, J. & Song, L. (2007). Applicability of the MTT assay for measuring viability of cyanobacteria and algae, specifically for Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroococcales, Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 46: 593-599.
López-Rodas, V., Costas, E. & Flores-Moya, A. (2013). Phenotypic and genetic diversities are not correlated in strains of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa isolated in SW Spain. Acta Botanica Malacitana 38: 5-12.
Lopez-Rodas, V., Costas, E., Bañares, E., Garcia-Villada, L., Altamirano, M., Rico, M., Salgado, C. & Flores-Moya, A. (2006). Analysis of polygenic traits of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) strains by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) procedures: 2. Microcystin net production, photosynthesis and respiration. Phycologia 45: 243-248.
Lyck, S. & Christoffersen, K. (2003). Microcystin quota, cell division and microcystin net production of precultured Microcystis aeruginosa CYA 228 (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae) under field conditions. Phycologia 42: 667-674.
Lyck, S., Gjølme, N. & Utkilen, H. (1996). Iron starvatin increases toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa CYA 228/1 (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae). Phycologia 35: 120-124, 5 figs.
Martín, A., Carrillo, E. & Costas, E. (2004). Variabilidad genética para la producción de toxina en poblaciones de Microcystis aeruginosa en dos embalses de abastecimiento de Andalucía. Limnetica 23: 153-158.
Mikula, P., Zezulka, S., Jancula, D. & Marsalek, B. (2012). Metabolic activity and membrane integrity changes in Microcystis aeruginosa - new findings on hydrogen peroxide toxicity in cyanobacteria. European Journal of Phycology 47(3): 195-206.
Murray, S. & Codd, G.A. (1984). Metabolic events during the senescence of Microcystis aeruginosa. British Phycological Journal 19: 198.
Olsen, Y. (1989). Evaluation of competitive ability of Staurastrum luetkemuellerii (Chlorophyceae) and Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) under P limitation. Journal of Phycology 25: 486-499, 16 figs, 7 tables.
Olsen, Y., Vadstein, O., Andersen, T. & Jensen, A. (1989). Competition between Staurastrum luetkemuellerii (Chlorophyceae) and Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) under varying modes of phosphate supply. Journal of Phycology 25: 499-508, 11 figs, 3 tables.
Priestley, I.M., Poon, G.K., Hunt, S.M., Fawell, J.K. & Codd, G.A. (1987). Purification and assay procedures for Microcystis aeruginosa peptide toxins. British Phycological Journal 22: 309-310.
Reynolds, C.S. & Rogers, D.A. (1976). Seasonal variations in the vertical distribution and buoyancy of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. emend. Elenkin in Rosthene Mere, England. Hydrobiologie 48: 17-23.
Rico, M., Altamirano, M., Lopez-Rodas, V. & Costas, E. (2006). Analysis of polygenic traits of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) strains by Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) procedures: 1. Size and shape of colonies and cells. Phycologia 45: 237-242.
Rohrlack, T. & Hyenstrand, P. (2007). Fate of intracellular microcystins in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Chroococcales, Cyanophyceae). Phycologia 46(3): 277-283, 3 figs, 1 table.
Song, Y. & Qiu, B. (2007). The CO2-concentrating mechanism in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) and effects of UVB radiation on its operation. Journal of Phycology 43(5): 957-964.
Utkilen, H., Skulberg, O.M., Underdal, B., Gjølme, N., Skulberg, R. & Kotai, J. (1996). The rise and fall of a toxigenic population of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae/Cyanobacteria) - a decade of observations in Lake Akersvatnet, Norway. Phycologia 35: 189-197, 5 figs, 3 tables.
Vance, B.D. (1966). Sensitivity of Microcystis aeruginosa and other blue-green algae and associated bacteria to selected antibiotics. Journal of Phycology 2: 125-128, 4 tables.
Wu, Z-X. & Song, L-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Ktz. (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 47: 98-104.
Wu, Z-X. & Song, L-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Ktz. (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 47: 98-104.
Wu, Z-X. & Song, L-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Ktz. (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 47: 98-104.
Wu, Z-X. & Song, L-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Ktz. (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 47: 98-104.
Wu, Z-X. & Song, L-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Ktz. (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia 47: 98-104.
Wu, Z-X. & Song, L-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Ktz. (Cyanobacteria). Phycologia : 98-104.
Wu, Z.-X. & Song, L.-R. (2008). Physiological comparison between colonial and unicellular forms of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. Phycologia 47: 98-104.
Yamamoto, Y. & Nakahara, H. (2005). Competitive dominance of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in nutrient-rich culture conditions with special reference to dissolved inorganic carbon uptake. Phycological Research 53(3): 201-208.
Yang, Z., Kong, F., Shi, X., Zhang, M., Xing, P. & Cao, H. (2008). Changes in the morphology and polysaccharide content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) during flagellate grazing. Journal of Phycology 44: 716-720.
Yu, S., Liu, Y., Zhang, J. & Gao, B. (2019). Influence of mixed antibiotics on Microcystis aeruginosa during the application of glyphosphate and hydrogen peroxide algaecides. Journal of Phycology 55(2): 457-465.
Zhang, M., Shi, X., Yu, Y. & Kong, F. (2011). The acclimative changes in photochemistry after colony formation of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. Journal of Phycology 47(3): 524-532.
Zhang, Y., Jiang, H.-B. & Qiu, B.-S. (2013). Effects of UVB radiation on competition between the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and the Chlorophyceae Chlamydomonas microsphaera. Journal of Phycology 49(2): 318-328.
Zhang, Y., Jiang, H.-B., Liu, S.-W., Gao, K.-S. & Qiu, B.-S. (2012). Effects of dissolved inorganic carbon on competition of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa with the green alga Chlamydomonas microsphaera. European Journal of Phycology 47(1): 1-11.

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M.D. Guiry in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 2019. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 24 July 2019.

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